Executive Summaries of All CRS Reports

Friday, January 31, 2014

The Lacey Act: Protecting the Environment by Restricting Trade – R42067

Kristina Alexander Legislative Attorney The Lacey Act was enacted in 1900 ... http://p.ost.im/RGEJAF

State Government Fiscal Stress and Federal Assistance – R41773

Robert Jay Dilger Senior Specialist in American National Government No tw ... http://p.ost.im/RtQJT3

District of Columbia: A Brief Review of Provisions in District of Columbia Appropriations Acts Restricting the Funding of Abortion Services – R41772

Eugene Boyd Analyst in Federalism and Economic Development Policy The pub ... http://p.ost.im/Rc5aPx

The Leahy-Smith America Invents Act: Innovation Issues – R42014

John R. Thomas Visiting Scholar Following several years of legislative di ... http://p.ost.im/RcbFjJ

The District of Columbia Tuition Assistance Grant (DCTAG) Program – R41313

Alexandra Hegji Analyst in Social Policy To address concerns about the pu ... http://p.ost.im/RnRbvA

The Role of Trade Secrets in Innovation Policy – R41391

John R. Thomas Visiting Scholar Many businesses have developed proprietar ... http://p.ost.im/RcLapS

Follow-On Biologics: The Law and Intellectual Property Issues – R41483

John R. Thomas Visiting Scholar The term “biologics” refers to a cate ... http://p.ost.im/RtUqhk

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview – R41726

D. Andrew Austin Analyst in Economic Policy This report provides a graphi ... http://p.ost.im/RvAXfS

The U.S. Export Control System and the President’s Reform Initiative – R41916

Ian F. Fergusson Specialist in International Trade and Finance Paul K. Ke ... http://p.ost.im/R75JYt

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation – R41259

Emma Chanlett-Avery Specialist in Asian Affairs Ian E. Rinehart Analyst i ... http://p.ost.im/RGkUFG

Social Security Primer – R42035

Dawn Nuschler Specialist in Income Security The Social Security program b ... http://p.ost.im/Rv27YY

The Role of TARP Assistance in the Restructuring of General Motors – R41978

Bill Canis Specialist in Industrial Organization and Business Baird Webel ... http://p.ost.im/RWed45

Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status – R41427

Baird Webel Specialist in Financial Economics The Troubled Asset Relief P ... http://p.ost.im/RchKqS

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Post-Employment, “Revolving Door,” Laws for Federal Personnel – R42728

Jack Maskell Legislative Attorney Federal personnel may be subject to cer ... http://p.ost.im/RcR7XC

Permanent Legal Immigration to the United States: Policy Overview – R42866

Ruth Ellen Wasem Specialist in Immigration Policy The pool of people who ... http://p.ost.im/Rv94a4

Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress – R42723

Andrew Feickert Specialist in Military Ground Forces On January 6, 2011, ... http://p.ost.im/R7J54R

Klamath Basin Settlement Agreements: Issues in Brief – R42158

Charles V. Stern Coordinator Specialist in Natural Resources Policy The K ... http://p.ost.im/RWGfBr

Clean Water Act and Pollutant Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) – R42752

Claudia Copeland Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy Section ... http://p.ost.im/RWNqQY

The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA): Issues for the 113th Congress – R42886

Linda K. Moore Specialist in Telecommunications Policy The National Telec ... http://p.ost.im/RG2uRE

Moving to Work (MTW): Housing Assistance Demonstration Program – R42562

Maggie McCarty Specialist in Housing Policy The Moving to Work (MTW) demo ... http://p.ost.im/RtPGWj

EPA’s Vessel General Permits: Background and Issues – R42142

Claudia Copeland Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy In Nove ... http://p.ost.im/R7RDWw

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

Rita Tehan Information Research Specialist This report provides reference ... http://p.ost.im/RGjSAv

Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): Funding Trends Since FY2002 – R42542

Maggie McCarty Specialist in Housing Policy The Department of Housing and ... http://p.ost.im/Rc6gFS

The First Responder Network and Next- Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress – R42543

Linda K. Moore Specialist in Telecommunications Policy Since September 11 ... http://p.ost.im/RnmQVj

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB): A Legal Analysis – R42572

David H. Carpenter Legislative Attorney In the wake of the worst U.S. fin ... http://p.ost.im/RWac43

IMF Reforms: Issues for Congress – R42844

Rebecca M. Nelson Analyst in International Trade and Finance Martin A. We ... http://p.ost.im/RtdAGp

Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2013 – R42738

Barbara Salazar Torreon Information Research Specialist This report lists ... http://p.ost.im/RWj2BW

Long-Term Services and Supports: Overview and Financing – R42345

Kirsten J. Colello Specialist in Health and Aging Policy Scott R. Talaga ... http://p.ost.im/RcYpmM

Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Millennium Challenge Corporation – RL32427

Curt Tarnoff Specialist in Foreign Affairs The Millennium Challenge Corpo ... http://p.ost.im/RnYHGE

The Role of Patents and Regulatory Exclusivities in Pharmaceutical Innovation – R42890

John R. Thomas Visiting Scholar In combination, patents and regulatory ex ... http://p.ost.im/RGEsdu

State Legalization of Recreational Marijuana: Selected Legal Issues – R43034

Todd Garvey Legislative Attorney Brian T. Yeh Legislative Attorney May a ... http://p.ost.im/RW4mdF

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 113th Congress: New and Recurring Issues – R42945

M. Lynne Corn Coordinator Specialist in Natural Resources Policy The Enda ... http://p.ost.im/RG2jgg

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations – R43043

Susan B. Epstein Specialist in Foreign Policy Marian Leonardo Lawson Spec ... http://p.ost.im/R7ax2s

Social Security: Major Decisions in the House and Senate Since 1935 – RL30920

Gary Sidor Information Research Specialist Since its enactment in 1935, t ... http://p.ost.im/Rnh5YV

Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy – RL30588

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs The United States an ... http://p.ost.im/RGQqkg

Senate Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments – 98-183

Judy Schneider Specialist on the Congress Senate Rule XXV and party confe ... http://p.ost.im/RGkrCD

Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile – R42964

Jennifer E. Manning Information Research Specialist This report presents ... http://p.ost.im/RGW9Rd

Social Security: Substantial Gainful Activity for the Blind – RS20479

William R. Morton Analyst in Income Security In the Social Security disab ... http://p.ost.im/RtD8P5

Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations – R43121

Carl E. Behrens Coordinator, Specialist in Energy Policy The Energy and W ... http://p.ost.im/RnSGV2

Institutional Eligibility for Participation in Title IV Student Financial Aid Programs – R43159

Alexandra Hegji Analyst in Social Policy Shannon M. Mahan Specialist in E ... http://p.ost.im/RWuMTg

President Obama’s Climate Action Plan – R43120

Jane A. Leggett Coordinator, Specialist in Energy and Environmental Polic ... http://p.ost.im/RWxPyp

Armed Conflict in Syria:Overview and U.S. Response – RL33487

Christopher M. Blanchard Coordinator Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs ... http://p.ost.im/RWuKp5

Health Care for Rural Veterans: The Example of Federally Qualified Health Centers – R43029

Elayne J. Heisler Analyst in Health Services Sidath Viranga Panangala Spe ... http://p.ost.im/RvVKjh

The Ability-to-Repay Rule: Possible Effects of the Qualified Mortgage Definition on Credit Availability and Other Selected Issues – R43081

Sean M. Hoskins Analyst in Financial Economics On January 10, 2013, the C ... http://p.ost.im/Rv3mEB

Next Steps in Nuclear Arms Control with Russia: Issues for Congress – R43037

Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy In his 2013 State of th ... http://p.ost.im/RvBHmH

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions – RL32760

Gene Falk Specialist in Social Policy The Temporary Assistance for Needy ... http://p.ost.im/RvH3sv

Pharmaceutical Patent Settlements: Issues in Innovation and Competitiveness – R42960

John R. Thomas Visiting Scholar Although brand-name pharmaceutical compan ... http://p.ost.im/RGqW7n

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

The European Union: Questions and Answers – RS21372

Kristin Archick Specialist in European Affairs The European Union (EU) is ... http://p.ost.im/R7eJb6

Federal Permitting and Oversight of Export of Fossil Fuels – R43231

Adam Vann Legislative Attorney Daniel T. Shedd Legislative Attorney Brand ... http://p.ost.im/RnpJCb

Oil and Chemical Spills: Federal Emergency Response Framework – R43251

David M. Bearden Specialist in Environmental Policy Jonathan L. Ramseur S ... http://p.ost.im/Rts8QX

Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism – RL34287

Nathan James Analyst in Crime Policy The prison population in the United ... http://p.ost.im/RvWUTM

China-U.S. Trade Issues – RL33536

Wayne M. Morrison Specialist in Asian Trade and Finance U.S.-China econom ... http://p.ost.im/RnMQ5E

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Overview and Issues – RS20764

Kevin J. Coleman Analyst in Elections Members of the uniformed services a ... http://p.ost.im/R78u2u

Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues – RS20844

Ruth Ellen Wasem Specialist in Immigration Policy Karma Ester Information ... http://p.ost.im/RWAgmC

Compulsory Licensing of Patented Inventions – R43266

John R. Thomas Visiting Scholar The term “compulsory license” refers ... http://p.ost.im/RcJyp3

Older Americans Act: Title III Nutrition Services Program – RS21202

Kirsten J. Colello Specialist in Health and Aging Policy The elderly nutr ... http://p.ost.im/RGGE2J

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) and the Role of Congress in Trade Policy – RL33743

William H. Cooper Specialists in International Trade and Finance On July ... http://p.ost.im/RGPQgk

Vulnerable Youth: Background and Policies – RL33975

Adrienne L. Fernandes-Alcantara Specialist in Social Policy The majority ... http://p.ost.im/Rn45wD

United Nations Reform: Background and Issues for Congress – RL33848

Luisa Blanchfield Specialist in International Relations Since its establi ... http://p.ost.im/RGN9L6

Iran Sanctions – RS20871

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Strict sanctions on Ira ... http://p.ost.im/RWMyDs

Monday, January 27, 2014

Aereo and FilmOn X: Internet Television Streaming and Copyright Law – R43359

Emily M. Lanza Legislative Attorney Aereo and FilmOn X stream television ... http://p.ost.im/RGjxJG

Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA): Gaming on Newly Acquired Lands – RL34325

M. Maureen Murphy Legislative Attorney The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( ... http://p.ost.im/RnfLmb

Alternative Inflation Measures for the Social Security Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) – R43363

Noah P. Meyerson Analyst in Income Security Monthly Social Security payme ... http://p.ost.im/RtSgyq

Reform of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Courts: Procedural and Operational Changes – R43362

Andrew Nolan Legislative Attorney Richard M. Thompson II Legislative Atto ... http://p.ost.im/RGcQAE

Carcieri v. Salazar: The Secretary of the Interior May Not Acquire Trust Land for the Narragansett Indian Tribe Under 25 U.S.C. § 465 Because That Statute Applies to Tribes “Under Federal Jurisdiction” in 1934 – RL34521

M. Maureen Murphy Legislative Attorney In Carcieri v. Salazar, 555 U.S. 3 ... http://p.ost.im/RtMkxS

The Crisis in South Sudan – R43344

Lauren Ploch Blanchard Specialist in African Affairs In December 2013, gr ... http://p.ost.im/RnnRaE

U.S. Naturalization Policy – R43366

William A. Kandel Analyst in Immigration Policy Naturalization is the pro ... http://p.ost.im/RcRHsy

Implementation of Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS): Issues for Congress – R43346

Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and Technology Policy The Department o ... http://p.ost.im/RW3pXF

Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance – RS21922

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs The capacity, transp ... http://p.ost.im/RWeGn3

Military Funeral Honors and Military Cemetaries: Frequently Asked Questions – RS21545

This report is written in response to frequently asked questions (FAQs) a ... http://p.ost.im/Rne3vA

Paraprofessional Quality and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act: Background and Issues in Brief – RS22545

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) established minimum qualifica ... http://p.ost.im/RcdK8p

The U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products – RL34468

Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy Over the last decade, t ... http://p.ost.im/Rc2Bp8

The President’s Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP): Issues for Congress – RL34736

John F. Sagent Jr. Specialists in Science and Technology Policy Dana A. S ... http://p.ost.im/RG3hPF

Financial Assets and Conflict of Interest Regulation in the Executive Branch – R43365

Jack Maskell Legislative Attorney Congressional offices reviewing or cond ... http://p.ost.im/Rn6ppx

“Leahy Law” Human Rights Provisions and Security Assistance: Issue Overview – R43361

Nina M. Serafino Coordinator, Specialist in International Security Affair ... http://p.ost.im/RG8dr3

Trends in Discretionary Spending – RL34424

D. Andrew Austin Analyst in Economic Policy Discretionary spending is pro ... http://p.ost.im/RGve4p

Gene Patents: A Brief Overview of Intellectual Property Issues – RS22516

John R. Thomas Visiting Scholar In the past, the U.S. courts upheld gene ... http://p.ost.im/RtjdTU

H.R. 3080 and S. 601: Side-by-Side Comparison of Selected Provisions – R43298

John Frittelli Specialist in Transportation Policy Linda Luther Analyst i ... http://p.ost.im/RGwsxy

Recent Trends in Consumer Retail Payment Services Delivered by Depository Institutions – R43364

Darryl E. Getter Specialist in Financial Economics Congressional interest ... http://p.ost.im/RGeGGB

The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer – RS22600

Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy Numerous federal, state ... http://p.ost.im/RtRQst

Friday, January 24, 2014

Tax Deductions for Individuals: A Summary – R42872

Sean Lowry Analyst in Public Finance Every tax filer has the option to cl ... http://p.ost.im/RWWqBS

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues – RL31555

Shirley A. Kan Specialist in Asian Security Affairs Congress has long bee ... http://p.ost.im/RGGU9a

Right to Work Laws: Legislative Background and Empirical Research – R42575

Benjamin Collins Analyst in Labor Policy The National Labor Relations Act ... http://p.ost.im/RnQwrq

The TRIO Programs: A Primer – R42724

Cassandria Dortch Analyst in Education Policy This report serves as an in ... http://p.ost.im/Rnj3YC

Qualified Charitable Distributions from Individual Retirement Accounts: Features and Legislative History

John J. Topoleski Analyst in Income Security   A provision of the Pensi ... http://p.ost.im/RtRQC4

Proposals to Eliminate Public Financing of Presidential Campaigns – R41604

R. Sam Garrett Specialist in American National Government There is a cons ... http://p.ost.im/RGbpTR

Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations – R42586

Daniel H. Else Specialist in National Defense Christine Scott Specialist ... http://p.ost.im/RnVDrP

Status of Mexican Trucks in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions – R41821

John Frittelli Specialist in Transportation Policy In the North American ... http://p.ost.im/RGxbXC

Introduction to Public Housing – R41654

Maggie McCarty Specialist in Housing Policy “Public housing” is often ... http://p.ost.im/RnHPAA

An Overview of the Section 8 Housing Programs: Housing Choice Vouchers and Project-Based Rental Assistance – RL32284

Maggie McCarty Domestic Social Policy Division The Section 8 low-income h ... http://p.ost.im/RtMTkf

Wilderness: Legislation and Issues in the 113th Congress – R41610

Kristina Alexander Legislative Attorney Sandra L. Johnson Information Res ... http://p.ost.im/RGQP2N

Enforcement of Private Health Insurance Market Reforms Under the Affordable Care Act (PPACA) – R41624

Jennifer Staman Legislative Attorney The Patient Protection and Affordabl ... http://p.ost.im/R7xVUQ

The Obama Administration’s Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation – R42625

John F. Sargent Jr Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Manufactur ... http://p.ost.im/Rt52vL

Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations – RL33003

Jeremy M. Sharp Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs This report provides ... http://p.ost.im/RGCPvX

National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background and Recent Amendments – RL33320

Charles Doyle Senior Specialist in American Public Law Five federal statu ... http://p.ost.im/RG9MQa

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons – RL32572

Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy The FY2013 Defense Auth ... http://p.ost.im/RGR88x

Thursday, January 23, 2014

Reauthorizing the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 – R41303

Katie Hoover Analyst in Natural Resources Policy Many counties are compen ... http://p.ost.im/RWReqy

Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: A Fact Sheet – R42973

Craig K. Elwell Specialist in Macroeconomic Policy Linda Levine Specialis ... http://p.ost.im/RWD7t5

Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies (THUD): FY2014 Appropriations – R43156

Libby Perl Specialist in Housing Policy David Randall Peterman Analyst in ... http://p.ost.im/RGXS32

Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations – R41368

Jim Zanotti Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Several Turkish domestic ... http://p.ost.im/RnvCpX

Small Business Administration and Job Creation – R41523

Robert Jay Dilger Senior Specialist in American National Government The S ... http://p.ost.im/Rn9F7F

Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education (L-HHS-ED): FY2014 Appropriations – R43236

Karen E. Lynch Coordinator, Specialist in Social Policy David H. Bradley ... http://p.ost.im/RWs2s3

The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions – R41219

Amy F. Woolf Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy The United States and R ... http://p.ost.im/RWkDML

Warranted but Precluded: What That Means Under the Endangered Species Act – R41100

Kristina Alexander Legislative Attorney The Endangered Species Act (ESA) ... http://p.ost.im/RWT3JC

Corporate Tax Reform: Issues for Congress – RL34229

Jane G. Gravelle Senior Specialist in Economic Policy Thomas L. Hungerfor ... http://p.ost.im/RGxtJ5

The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress – R41542

R. Sam Garrett Specialist in American National Government Minor and major ... http://p.ost.im/R7XC4R

Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues – R40860

Robert Jay Dilger Senior Specialist in American National Government Small ... http://p.ost.im/RnxNub

Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program: Issues and Reform Proposals – RL34002

Maggie McCarty Specialist in Housing Policy The Section 8 Housing Choice ... http://p.ost.im/RGxMP7

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests – RL33407

Jim Nichol Coordinator, Specialist in Russian and Eurasian Affairs Russia ... http://p.ost.im/RGvBc7

The Housing Trust Fund: Background and Issues – R40781

Katie Jones Analyst in Housing Policy On July 30, 2008, President George ... http://p.ost.im/RnHAh9

Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities – RL34331

Mark Holt Specialist in Energy Policy Anthony Andrews Specialist in Energ ... http://p.ost.im/RntTLE

Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response – RL33487

Christopher M. Blanchard Coordinator Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs ... http://p.ost.im/RGXtBN

Injurious Species Listings Under the Lacey Act: A Legal Briefing – R43170

Kristina Alexander Legislative Attorney The Lacey Act addresses illegal w ... http://p.ost.im/RnyypS

Indian Health Care: Impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – R41152

Elayne J. Heisler Analyst in Health Services On March 23, 2010, President ... http://p.ost.im/RWA649

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Expiring Unemployment Insurance Provisions – R41508

Katelin P. Isaacs Analyst in Income Security Several key provisions relat ... http://p.ost.im/RGEsCF

Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations – R40094

Paul K. Kerr Analyst in Nonproliferation In 2002, the International Atomi ... http://p.ost.im/RGLDP8

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights – RS21968

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Two years after the ... http://p.ost.im/RnKfsa

Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding – R40212

Karen E. Lynch Analyst in Social Policy Gail McCallion Specialist in Soci ... http://p.ost.im/RtayBQ

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy – 95-1013

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs The uprising against ... http://p.ost.im/Rnvj5k

State, Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Guide to Component Accounts – R40482

Curt Tarnoff Specialist in Foreign Affairs Alex Tiersky Analyst in Foreig ... http://p.ost.im/RnXnHA

Congressional Salaries and Allowances – RL30064

Ida A. Brudnick Specialist on the Congress This report provides basic inf ... http://p.ost.im/RWVR2y

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions – RL30354

Marc Labonte Specialist in Macroeconomic Policy The Federal Reserve (the ... http://p.ost.im/RWPNqT

The 2010 Decennial Census: Background and Issues – R40551

Jennifer D. Williams Specialist in American National Government The 23rd ... http://p.ost.im/R7hNTb

Wilderness: Overview and Statistics – RL31447

Katie Hoover Analyst in Natural Resources Policy Congress enacted the Wil ... http://p.ost.im/RGekND

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies – 98-446

Audrey Celeste Crane-Hirsch Information Research Specialist This list of ... http://p.ost.im/RsTgW7

Northern Ireland: The Peace Process – RS21333

Kristin Archick Specialist in European Affairs Between 1969 and 1999, alm ... http://p.ost.im/RWGNBd

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information – RS20185

M. Maureen Murphy Legislative Attorney One of the functions transferred t ... http://p.ost.im/RGUtbW

The International Whaling Convention and Legal Issues Related to Aboriginal Rights – R40571

Kristina Alexander Legislative Attorney The International Whaling Commiss ... http://p.ost.im/Rtg2SA

Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations – R40126

Peter J. Meyer Analyst in Latin American Affairs Chile has maintained fri ... http://p.ost.im/R76tFC

U.S.-EU Poultry Dispute on the Use of Pathogen Reduction Treatments (PRTs) – R40199

Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy In January 2009, the ou ... http://p.ost.im/RsTVPk

Forestry Assistance Programs – RL31065

Katie Hoover Analyst in Natural Resources Policy The U.S. Department of A ... http://p.ost.im/R7djvw

Inland Waterways: Recent Proposals and Issues for Congress – R41430

Charles V. Stern Specialist in Natural Resources Policy Inland waterways ... http://p.ost.im/RWrjyE

Canada-U.S. Relations – 96-397

Carl W. Ek Coordinator, Specialist in International Relations Ian F. Ferg ... http://p.ost.im/RWvX7J

Tuesday, January 21, 2014

FY2014 Appropriations: District of Columbia – R43253

Eugene Boyd Analyst in Federalism and Economic Development Policy On Apri ... http://p.ost.im/RnqCpa

Food Fraud and “Economically Motivated Adulteration” of Food and Food Ingredients – R43358

Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy Food fraud, or the act ... http://p.ost.im/RGETQg

Marine Corps Drawdown, Force Structure Initiatives, and Roles and Missions: Background and Issues for Congress – R43355

Andrew Feickert Specialist in Military Ground Forces The Marine Corps cha ... http://p.ost.im/RWsA3a

Mexico’s Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States – R43313

Clare Ribando Seelke Coordinator, Specialist in Latin American Affairs Mi ... http://p.ost.im/RG76D4

The Crisis in South Sudan – R43344

Lauren Ploch Blanchard Specialist in African Affairs In December 2013, gr ... http://p.ost.im/RGpdMm

The Higher Education Act (HEA): A Primer – R43351

Alexandra Hegji Analyst in Social Policy The Higher Education Act of 1965 ... http://p.ost.im/RGDbm7

Border Security: Immigration Inspections at Port of Entry – R43356

Lisa Seghetti Section Research Manager About 362 million travelers (citiz ... http://p.ost.im/RG9NnC

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress – RS22942

Andrew Feickert Specialist in Military Ground Forces The Joint Light Tact ... http://p.ost.im/RnDvDq

Medicaid: An Overview – R43357

Alison Mitchell Coordinator, Analyst in Health Care Financing Medicaid is ... http://p.ost.im/RswGKx

Threats to U.S. National Security Interests in Space: Orbital Debris Mitigation and Removal – R43353

Steven A. Hildreth Specialist in Missile Defense Allison Arnold Research ... http://p.ost.im/Rng4e6

Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2014 Appropriations – R43352

Baird Webel Coordinator Specialist in Financial Economics The Financial S ... http://p.ost.im/RGAvTM

The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress – R43240

Andrew Feickert Specialist in Military Ground Forces The Armored Multi-Pu ... http://p.ost.im/RWWqMx

Juvenile Justice Funding Trends – RS22655

Kristin M. Finklea Specialist in Domestic Security Although juvenile just ... http://p.ost.im/RtErfB

Generalized System of Preferences: Agricultural Imports – RS22541

Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy The Generalized System ... http://p.ost.im/RWTMsL

Commercial Filming and Photography on Federal Lands – R43267

Laura B. Comay Analyst in Natural Resources Policy Federal lands such as ... http://p.ost.im/RWdxpW

Defense: FY2014 Authorization and Appropriations – R43323

Pat Towell Specialist in U.S. Defense Policy and Budget Amy Belasco Speci ... http://p.ost.im/RnxDyA

The Corporation for Public Broadcasting: Federal Funding and Issues – RS22168

Mark Gurevitz Information Research Specialist Glenn J. McLoughlin Section ... http://p.ost.im/RGvVrm

The Mental Health Workforce: A Primer – R43255

Elayne J. Heisler Analyst in Health Services Erin Bagalman Analyst in Hea ... http://p.ost.im/RGxmer

National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse of the Legal Background – RS22406

Charles Doyle Senior Specialist in American Public Law   Five federal s ... http://p.ost.im/RtPAuM

Domestic Content Restrictions: The Buy American Act and Complementary Provisions of Federal Law – R43354

Kate M. Manuel Legislative Attorney Alissa M. Dolan Legislative Attorney ... http://p.ost.im/RnK3K3

Friday, January 17, 2014

Winter Fuels Outlook 2013-2014 – R42090

Robert Pirog Specialist in Energy Economics The Energy Information Admini ... http://p.ost.im/RtmGU8

Rates and Economic Growth – R42111

Jane G. Gravelle Senior Specialist in Economic Policy Donald J. Marples S ... http://p.ost.im/RW97LN

The Indian Health Care Improvement Act Reauthorization and Extension as Enacted by the ACA: Detailed Summary and Timeline – R41630

Elayne J. Heisler Analyst in Health Services On March 23, 2010, President ... http://p.ost.im/RWFSy6

Federal Health Centers – R42433

Elayne J. Heisler Analyst in Health Services The federal health center pr ... http://p.ost.im/RtXp5C

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Categorical Eligibility – R42054

Gene Falk Specialist in Social Policy Randy Alison Aussenberg Analyst in ... http://p.ost.im/RWmSwR

Welfare, Work, and Poverty Status of Female-Headed Families with Children: 1987-2012 – R41917

Thomas Gabe Specialist in Social Policy Seventeen years have passed since ... http://p.ost.im/RnsVEu

Wilderness Laws: Statutory Provisions and Prohibited and Permitted Uses – R41649

Kristina Alexander Legislative Attorney Katie Hoover Analyst in Natural R ... http://p.ost.im/RWpB3M

The Small Business Lending Fund – R42045

Robert Jay Dilger Senior Specialist in American National Government Congr ... http://p.ost.im/RWKc8r

America COMPETES 2010 and the FY2013 Budget – R42430

Heather B. Gonzalez Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Signed on ... http://p.ost.im/RtaKJB

Federal Assistance for Wildfire Response and Recovery – R41858

Kelsi Bracmort Specialist in Agricultural Conservation and Natural Resour ... http://p.ost.im/R78VcA

Thursday, January 16, 2014

Science and Technology Issues in the 113th Congress – R43114

Frank Gottron, Coordinator Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Sc ... http://p.ost.im/RtTGJX

Prosecutorial Discretion in Immigration Enforcement: Legal Issues – R42924

Kate M. Manuel Legislative Attorney Todd Garvey Legislative Attorney The ... http://p.ost.im/RnfuXT

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): A Primer on Eligibility and Benefits – R42505

Randy Alison Aussenberg Analyst in Nutrition Assistance Policy The Supple ... http://p.ost.im/RnaarQ

Federal Traffic Safety Programs: In Brief – R43026

David Randall Peterman Analyst in Transportation Policy Driving is one of ... http://p.ost.im/RGLmvj

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP): Status and Issues – R42783

Megan Stubbs Specialist in Agricultural Conservation and Natural Resource ... http://p.ost.im/R78n3e

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2014 Budget and Appropriations – R43043

Susan B. Epstein Specialist in Foreign Policy Marian Leonardo Lawson Spec ... http://p.ost.im/RGaTb4

Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grants – R42661

Benjamin Collins Analyst in Labor Policy Trade Adjustment Assistance Comm ... http://p.ost.im/RG7ME5

Medigap: A Primer – R42745

Carol Rapaport Analyst in Health Care Financing Medicare is a nationwide ... http://p.ost.im/RtPsnk

Compensatory Time and the Working Families Flexibility Act of 2013 – R43088

Benjamin Collins Analyst in Labor Policy Gerald Mayer Analyst in Labor Po ... http://p.ost.im/RWJ2dn

FY2013 Appropriations: District of Columbia – R42657

Eugene Boyd Analyst in Federalism and Economic Development Policy On Febr ... http://p.ost.im/RGwp8K

Tuesday, January 14, 2014

In Re Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001: Dismissals of Claims Against Saudi Defendants Under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA) – RL34726

Jennifer K. Elsea Legislative Attorney Practical and legal hurdles, inclu ... http://p.ost.im/RtuGEY

Free Exercise of Religion by Secular Organizations and Their Owners: Implications for the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – R43329

Cynthia Brougher Legislative Attorney The Supreme Court’s grant of revi ... http://p.ost.im/RtGvxR

Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers – RL33537

Don J. Jansen Analyst in Defense Health Care Policy Katherine Blakeley An ... http://p.ost.im/RGJCgP

Columbia River Treaty Review – R43287

Charles V. Stern Specialist in Natural Resources Policy The Columbia Rive ... http://p.ost.im/RGYnSy

The Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation and Single-Employer Plan Terminations – RS22624

Jennifer Staman Legislative Attorney Erika Lunder Legislative Attorney Re ... http://p.ost.im/RnLyMx

Oman: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy – RS21534

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Prior to the wave of ... http://p.ost.im/RtHLsy

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy – RS21852

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Summary The UAE’ ... http://p.ost.im/RsTLhU

Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives – RL34115

Jane G. Gravelle Senior Specialist in Economic Policy A striking feature ... http://p.ost.im/Rscgpm

Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act – R43256

Linda K. Moore Specialist in Telecommunications Policy The Middle Class T ... http://p.ost.im/Rn42xB

Taxation of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Managers – RS22689

Donald J. Marples Specialist in Public Finance Private equity and hedge f ... http://p.ost.im/RGpfPE

Monday, January 13, 2014

Implementation of Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS): Issues for Congress – R43346

Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and Technology Policy The Department o ... http://p.ost.im/RtTemn

U.S. Postal Service Retiree Health Benefits and Pension Funding Issues – R43349

Kevin R. Kosar Acting Section Research Manager and Analyst in American an ... http://p.ost.im/RGhn7T

Increasing the Efficiency of Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants – R43343

Richard J. Campbell Specialist in Energy Policy Coal has long been the ma ... http://p.ost.im/RGscex

Budgetary and Distributional Effects of Adopting the Chained CPI – R43347

Donald J. Marples Specialist in Public Finance This report examines the b ... http://p.ost.im/RGGmmw

Brief History of NIH Funding: Fact Sheet – R43341

Judith A. Johnson Specialist in Biomedical Policy The National Institutes ... http://p.ost.im/RWACqE

Upcoming Rules Pursuant to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Spring 2013 Unified Agenda – R43348

Maeve P. Carey Analyst in Government Organization and Management Michelle ... http://p.ost.im/RswXd9

The Medical Device Excise Tax: Economic Analysis – R43342

Jane G. Gravelle Senior Specialist in Economic Policy Sean Lowry Analyst ... http://p.ost.im/RWaYLp

The Crisis in South Sudan – R43344

Lauren Ploch Blanchard Specialist in African Affairs In December 2013, gr ... http://p.ost.im/RGnSCQ

International Corporate Tax Rate Comparisons and Policy Implications – R41743

Jane G. Gravelle Senior Specialist in Economic Policy Advocates of cuttin ... http://p.ost.im/RnYXND

Shadow Banking: Background and Policy Issues – R43345

Edward V. Murphy Specialist in Financial Economics Shadow banking refers ... http://p.ost.im/RGtWsQ

Saturday, January 11, 2014

Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): FY2013 Appropriations – R42517

Maggie McCarty Coordinator, Specialist in Housing Policy The President’ ... http://p.ost.im/Rnaty5

Burma’s Political Prisoners and U.S. Sanctions – R42363

Michael F. Martin Specialist in Asian Affairs The release of Burma’s po ... http://p.ost.im/RtErT4

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources. by Topic – R42507

Rita Tehan Information Research Specialist Cybersecurity vulnerabilities ... http://p.ost.im/Rsw5n9

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2013 – R42410

John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist in Science and Technology Policy President ... http://p.ost.im/RtVRtk

Expiration and Extension of the 2008 Farm Bill – R42442

Jim Monke Specialist in Agricultural Policy Megan Stubbs Specialist in Ag ... http://p.ost.im/Rs35XD

Thursday, January 9, 2014

Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations – R42525

Carol Hardy Vincent Specialist in Natural Resources Policy The Interior, ... http://p.ost.im/RtRAuv

The Development of High Speed Rail in the United States: Issues and Recent Events – R42584

David Randall Peterman Coordinator, Analyst in Transportation Policy The ... http://p.ost.im/RnCqCM

The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System: A Brief Overview – R42614

Sandra L. Johnson Information Research Specialist Laura B. Comay Analyst ... http://p.ost.im/Rn4VgL

Firearms at Army Corps Water Resources Projects: Proposed Legislation and Issues for Congress – R42602

Nicole T. Carter Specialist in Natural Resources Policy As part of its ci ... http://p.ost.im/RGyWRa

State Small Business Credit Initiative: Implementation and Funding Issues – R42581

Robert Jay Dilger Senior Specialist in American National Government Congr ... http://p.ost.im/RGAP7k

Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Production Tax Credit Incentives for Renewable Electricity: Financial Comparison of Selected Policy Options

Phillip Brown Specialist in Energy Policy Under current law, the producti ... http://p.ost.im/Rp6hnr

Selected STEM Education Legislative Activity in the 112th Congress – M-101111

Heather Gonzalez Specialist in Science and Technology Policy This general ... http://p.ost.im/RpCcND

Water Quality Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview – R42883

Claudia Copeland Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy Much pr ... http://p.ost.im/RpaDku

Tax Reform in the 113th Congress: An Overview of Proposals – R43060

Molly F. Sherlock Specialist in Public Finance Many agree that the U.S. t ... http://p.ost.im/RgpQwg

Medical Child Support: Background and Current Policy – R43020

Carmen Solomon-Fears Specialist in Social Policy Medical child support is ... http://p.ost.im/Rgn32v

Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Background and Policy Issues – R42834

Alex Tiersky Analyst in Foreign Affairs Susan B. Epstein Specialist in Fo ... http://p.ost.im/Rpf9dv

Highway Bridge Conditions: Issues for Congress – R43103

Robert S. Kirk Specialist in Transportation Policy William J. Mallett Spe ... http://p.ost.im/RppwGA

Monday, January 6, 2014

Campaign Contribution Limits: Selected Questions About McCutcheon and Policy Issues for Congress – R43334

R. Sam Garrett Specialist in American National Government Aggregate limit ... http://p.ost.im/RVFGt7

Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced? – RL34384

Robert Esworthy Specialist in Environmental Policy As a result of enforce ... http://p.ost.im/RbSYxL

Child Support: An Overview of Census Bureau Data on Recipients – RS22499

Carmen Solomon-Fears Specialist in Social Policy The national Census Bure ... http://p.ost.im/RVmULa

Interim Agreement on Iran’s Nuclear Program – R43333

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Paul K. Kerr Analyst ... http://p.ost.im/RxnsKw

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights – RS21968

Kenneth Katzman Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs Two years after the ... http://p.ost.im/R4YLVR

Public-Private Partnerships for Purposes of Federal Real Property Management – R43337

Garrett Hatch Specialist in American National Government Kate M. Manuel L ... http://p.ost.im/R42h79

Status of the WTO Brazil-U.S. Cotton Case – R43336

Randy Schnepf Specialist in Agricultural Policy The so-called “Brazil c ... http://p.ost.im/RV7DUs

The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Overview, Reauthorization, and Appropriations Issues – RL34401

John F. Sargent, Jr. Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Nanotech ... http://p.ost.im/RqjYyt

Friday, January 3, 2014

Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 113th Congress – R43206

Molly F. Sherlock Specialist in Public Finance The scheduled expiration o ... http://p.ost.im/RbeFcK

Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies: Brief Overview of the President’s FY2014 Appropriations Request – R43142

Carol Hardy Vincent Specialist in Natural Resources Policy The Interior, ... http://p.ost.im/Rq4Q2V

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer – RL34511

John F. Sargent, Jr. Specialist in Science and Technology Policy Nanoscal ... http://p.ost.im/RVAUvn

The U.S.-Japan Alliance – RL33740

Emma Chanlett-Avery Specialist in Asian Affairs Ian E. Rinehart Analyst i ... http://p.ost.im/RVwqkk

Green Infrastructure and Issues in Managing Urban Stormwater – R43131

Claudia Copeland Specialist in Resources and Environmental Policy For dec ... http://p.ost.im/RqNPNf

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Annual Fee on Health Insurers – R43225

Suzanne M. Kirchhoff Analyst in Health Care Financing The Patient Protect ... http://p.ost.im/RqvJAN

Arab League Boycott of Israel – RL33961

Martin A. Weiss Specialist in International Trade and Finance The Arab Le ... http://p.ost.im/RxhCX4

Defense: FY2014 Authorization and Appropriations – R43323

Pat Towell Coordinator Specialist in U.S. Defense Policy and Budget Presi ... http://p.ost.im/Rqb7YA

Legal Services Corporation: Background and Funding – RL34016

Carmen Solomon-Fears Specialist in Social Policy The Legal Services Corpo ... http://p.ost.im/RbBGQc

War in Afghanistan: Campaign Progress, Political Strategy, and Issues for Congress – R43196

Catherine Dale Specialist in International Security This is a critical ti ... http://p.ost.im/R48yfL

Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer - RL34511

John F. Sargent, Jr.

Specialist in Science and Technology Policy

Nanoscale science, engineering, and technology—commonly referred to collectively as nanotechnology—is believed by many to offer extraordinary economic and societal benefits. Congress has demonstrated continuing support for nanotechnology and has directed its attention primarily to three topics that may affect the realization of this hoped for potential: federal research and development (R&D) in nanotechnology; U.S. competitiveness; and environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns. This report provides an overview of these topics—which are discussed in more detail in other CRS reports—and two others: nanomanufacturing and public understanding of and attitudes toward nanotechnology.


The development of this emerging field has been fostered by significant and sustained public investments in nanotechnology R&D. Nanotechnology R&D is directed toward the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers. At this size, the properties of matter can differ in fundamental and potentially useful ways from the properties of individual atoms and molecules and of bulk matter. Since the launch of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) in 2000 through FY2013, Congress has appropriated approximately $18 billion for nanotechnology R&D. President Obama has requested $1.7 billion in NNI funding for FY2014. More than 60 nations have established similar programs. In 2010, total annual global public R&D investments reached an estimated $8.2 billion, complemented by an estimated private sector investment of $9.6 billion. Data on economic outputs used to assess competitiveness in mature technologies and industries, such as revenues and market share, are not available for assessing nanotechnology. Alternatively, data on inputs (e.g., R&D expenditures) and non-financial outputs (e.g., scientific papers, patents) may provide insight into the current U.S. position and serve as bellwethers of future competitiveness. By these criteria, the United States appears to be the overall global leader in nanotechnology, though some believe the U.S. lead may not be as large as it was for previous emerging technologies.


Some research has raised concerns about the safety of nanoscale materials. There is general agreement that more information on EHS implications is needed to protect the public and the environment; to assess and manage risks; and to create a regulatory environment that fosters prudent investment in nanotechnology-related innovation. Nanomanufacturing—the bridge between nanoscience and nanotechnology products—may require the development of new technologies, tools, instruments, measurement science, and standards to enable safe, effective, and affordable commercial-scale production of nanotechnology products. Public understanding and attitudes may also affect the environment for R&D, regulation, and market acceptance of products incorporating nanotechnology.


In 2003, Congress enacted the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (P.L. 108-153) providing a legislative foundation for some of the activities of the NNI, addressing concerns, establishing programs, assigning agency responsibilities, and setting authorization levels. Efforts to reauthorize the act have been unsuccessful. As of the date of this report, no reauthorization legislation had been introduced in the 113th Congress. In October 2013, the ranking member of the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology circulated a draft reauthorization of the America COMPETES Act that included a “Reauthorization of the National Nanotechnology Initiative” subtitle. The majority version of the 2013 America COMPETES Act reauthorization bill does not include a nanotechnology reauthorization provision.


Date of Report: December 16, 2013

Number of Pages: 17
Order Number: RL34511

Price: $29.95


To Order:


CLICK:
RL34511.pdf  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART


e-mail congress@pennyhill.com


Phone 301-253-0881


For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.




Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer - RL34511

Arab League Boycott of Israel - RL33961

Martin A. Weiss

Specialist in International Trade and Finance

The Arab League, an umbrella organization comprising 22 Middle Eastern and African countries and entities, has maintained an official boycott of Israeli companies and Israeli-made goods since the founding of Israel in 1948. The boycott is administered by the Damascus-based Central Boycott Office, a specialized bureau of the Arab League.


The boycott has three tiers. The primary boycott prohibits citizens of an Arab League member from buying from, selling to, or entering into a business contract with either the Israeli government or an Israeli citizen. The secondary boycott extends the primary boycott to any entity world-wide that does business in Israel. A blacklist of global firms that engage in business with Israel is maintained by the Central Boycott Office, and disseminated to Arab League members. The tertiary boycott prohibits an Arab League member and its nationals from doing business with a company that deals with companies that have been blacklisted by the Arab League.


Since the boycott is sporadically applied and ambiguously enforced, its impact, measured by capital or revenue denied to Israel by companies adhering to the boycott, is difficult to measure. The effect of the primary boycott appears limited since intra-regional trade and investment are small. Enforcement of the secondary and tertiary boycotts has decreased over time, reducing their effect. Thus, it appears that since intra-regional trade is small, and that the secondary and tertiary boycotts are not aggressively enforced, the boycott may not currently have an extensive effect on the Israeli economy.


Despite the lack of economic impact on either Israeli or Arab economies, the boycott remains of strong symbolic importance to all parties. The U.S. government has often been at the forefront of international efforts to end the boycott and its enforcement. Despite U.S. efforts, however, many Arab League countries continue to support the boycott’s enforcement. U.S. legislative action related to the boycott dates from 1959 and includes multiple statutory provisions expressing U.S. opposition to the boycott, usually in foreign assistance legislation. In 1977, Congress passed laws making it illegal for U.S. companies to cooperate with the boycott and authorizing the imposition of civil and criminal penalties against U.S. violators. U.S. companies are required to report to the Department of Commerce any requests to comply with the Arab League Boycott.


The current list of countries that request U.S. companies to participate or agree to participate in boycotts prohibited under U.S. law includes Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.


This report provides background information on the boycott and U.S. efforts to end its enforcement. More information on Israel is contained in CRS Report RL33476, Israel: Background and U.S. Relations, by Jim Zanotti.


Date of Report: December 19, 2013

Number of Pages: 10
Order Number: RL33961

Price: $19.95


To Order:


CLICK:
RL33961.pdf  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART


e-mail congress@pennyhill.com


Phone 301-253-0881


For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.




Arab League Boycott of Israel - RL33961

Proposals to Eliminate Public Financing of Presidential Campaigns - R41604

R. Sam Garrett

Specialist in American National Government

There is a consensus that the presidential public financing program is antiquated and offers insufficient benefits to attract the most competitive candidates. No major candidate accepted public funds in 2012. In 2008, then-candidate Barack Obama became the first person, since the public financing program’s inception, elected President without accepting any public funds. For some, these developments signal an urgent need to save the public campaign financing program that has existed since the 1970s; for others, they suggest that the program is unnecessary.


Eight bills introduced in the 113th Congress would terminate all or parts of the program. These measures—H.R. 94, H.R. 95, H.R. 260, H.R. 270, H.R. 1724, H.R. 2019, H.R. 2857, and S. 118—are discussed in the next section of this report. The 112th Congress also considered terminating the program; two bills passed the House but died in the Senate. On January 26, 2011, the House passed (239-160) H.R. 359, sponsored by Representative Cole, to repeal public financing of presidential campaigns and nominating conventions. In addition, on December 1, 2011, the House passed (235-190) H.R. 3463. The latter bill, sponsored by Representative Harper, proposed to terminate the public financing program (in addition to eliminating the Election Assistance Commission) and transfer remaining amounts to the general fund of the U.S. Treasury for use in deficit reduction.


This report provides a brief policy overview and raises potential issues for congressional consideration. Readers are encouraged to consult the following CRS products for additional information.


CRS Report RL34534, Public Financing of Presidential Campaigns: Overview and Analysis, by R. Sam Garrett;


CRS Report RL34630, Federal Funding of Presidential Nominating Conventions: Overview and Policy Options, by R. Sam Garrett and Shawn Reese; and


CRS Report R41542, The State of Campaign Finance Policy: Recent Developments and Issues for Congress, by R. Sam Garrett (the “Public Financing Issues” section).


For a discussion of constitutional considerations, which are beyond the scope of this report and those noted above, readers may consult CRS Report RL30669, The Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Regulation: Buckley v. Valeo and Its Supreme Court Progeny, by L. Paige Whitaker.


Date of Report: December 9, 2013

Number of Pages: 7
Order Number: R41604

Price: $19.95


To Order:


CLICK:
R41604.pdf  to use the SECURE SHOPPING CART


e-mail congress@pennyhill.com


Phone 301-253-0881


For email and phone orders, provide a Visa, MasterCard, American Express, or Discover card number, expiration date, and name on the card. Indicate whether you want e-mail or postal delivery.




Proposals to Eliminate Public Financing of Presidential Campaigns - R41604

Recent Changes to Federal Employee Pay and Retirement Benefits in Support of Deficit Reduction - M-

Congressional Research Service

TO: Office of Senator Benjamin Cardin


This memorandum responds to your request for a summary of changes to the pay and retirement benefits of federal emp