Executive Summaries of All CRS Reports

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

JPMorgan Data Breach Involves Information on 76 Million Households, 7 Million Small Businesses – NB2014101055

On October 7, 2014, JPMorgan Chase Co. (JPMorgan) filed with the Securit ... http://p.ost.im/2aw4e5

Cities Try, and Fail (So Far), to Prevent Federal Marijuana Enforcement – NB2014101053

To paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the death of federal marijuana enfor ... http://p.ost.im/2HrDCt

No Second Amendment Cases for the Supreme Court’s 2014-2015 Term…Yet – NB2014101056

As the Supreme Court begins its 2014-2015 Term, it appears that there wil ... http://p.ost.im/2X4tTe

Regulating Abortion Clinics as Ambulatory Surgical Centers – NB2014101057

Update: On October 14, 2014, the U.S. Supreme Court vacated the stay orde ... http://p.ost.im/2X9sBt

Energy Star Litigation: Consumers Sue When Qualified Appliances Fail to Live up to the Label – NB2014101054

Energy Star is a voluntary labeling program jointly administered by the E ... http://p.ost.im/2q7JqM

Can the President Bar Foreign Travelers from Ebola-Stricken Countries from Entering the United States? – NB2014101052

The recent outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa has prompted concer ... http://p.ost.im/2XawMs

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

FY2015 Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations – IF00023

The annual Agriculture appropriations bill funds the U.S. Department of A ... http://p.ost.im/2XdQae

Turkey-U.S. Cooperation Against the “Islamic State”: A Unique Dynamic? – IN10164

Following the September 20, 2014, release by IS of 49 hostages associated ... http://p.ost.im/2CTkNn

California Drought: Water Supply and Conveyance Issues – IF00008

Nearly 60% of the state of California is experiencing “exceptional drought ... http://p.ost.im/2XBTXU

Deploying 5G (Fifth Generation) Wireless Technology: Is the United States on Track? – IN10110

In 2018, when the XXIII Winter Olympic Games begin in PyeongChang, South ... http://p.ost.im/2XPWQE

Brazil’s October 2014 Presidential Election – IN10157

Brazil, the fifth most populous country and seventh largest economy in th ... http://p.ost.im/2CK4Re

Protests in Hong Kong: The Umbrella Movement – IF00056

Hong Kong’s protests, dubbed the “Umbrella Movement” by its organiz ... http://p.ost.im/2PYdJA

Palestinian Authority: U.S. Payments to Creditors as Alternative to Direct Budgetary Assistance? – IN10161

The previous U.S. approach had provided budgetary assistance directly to ... http://p.ost.im/2VFNF2

U.S. Foreign Assistance – IF00054

Foreign assistance is an instrument of U.S. policy through which the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/2VhMVC

WTO Disciplines of Domestic Support for Agriculture – IF00055

Trade is critical to the U.S. agricultural sector—exports account for a ... http://p.ost.im/2XNWKf

Monday, October 27, 2014

The Farm Safety Net: In Brief – R43758

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) operates several programs that ... http://p.ost.im/2QYC8x

Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia – R43743

Since the enactment of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986, Congres ... http://p.ost.im/298Dpm

Implementation of Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (CFATS): Issues for Congress – R43346

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implements the Chemical Facilit ... http://p.ost.im/29gHDH

Monuments and Memorials Authorized Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia: Current Development of In-Progress and Lapsed Works – R43744

Under the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) of 1986, Congress may authorize c ... http://p.ost.im/2mbB3t

Guinea: In Brief – R40703

At present, Guinea is one of three countries most affected by the Ebola o ... http://p.ost.im/2UFbCc

Nuclear Energy Policy – RL33558

Nuclear energy issues facing Congress include reactor safety and regulati ... http://p.ost.im/2QMFuH

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity fr ... http://p.ost.im/2UbT9n

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer – RS22937

In order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation ... http://p.ost.im/2yHHXm

Western Sahara – RS20962

Since the 1970s, Morocco and the independence-seeking Popular Front for t ... http://p.ost.im/2xyhec

Prescription Drug Abuse – R43559

An estimated 6.5 million individuals currently abuse prescription drugs i ... http://p.ost.im/2ksCjK

House Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments – 98-151

Both House and party rules detail procedures for committee assignments. H ... http://p.ost.im/2BcVdv

Recently Expired Charitable Tax Provisions (“Tax Extenders”): In Brief – R43517

The 113th Congress has considered legislation that would extend certain e ... http://p.ost.im/2ArG2W

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments – RS22570

Since 2000, the U.S. military has been building up forward-deployed force ... http://p.ost.im/25C5YJ

National Park Service: FY2015 Appropriations and Recent Trends – R42757

The National Park Service (NPS) receives appropriations in the annual Int ... http://p.ost.im/2QPnfj

Same-Sex Marriage: A Legal Background After United States v. Windsor – R43481

The issue of same-sex marriage generates debate on both the federal and s ... http://p.ost.im/2XRkKh

Renewable Energy R Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R – RS22858

Energy-related research and development (RD)—on coal-based synthetic pe ... http://p.ost.im/2yC2KH

State Small Business Credit Initiative: Implementation and Funding Issues – R42581

Congressional interest in small business access to capital has increased ... http://p.ost.im/2B8R8k

Cybercrime: A Sketch of 18 U.S.C. 1030 and Related Federal Criminal Laws – RS20830

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), 18 U.S.C. 1030, outlaws conduct ... http://p.ost.im/2SEnSg

Child Welfare and Child Support: The Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (P.L. 113-183) – R43757

The Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (H.R. 4980) ... http://p.ost.im/2QcCLp

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions – R43215

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as ame ... http://p.ost.im/2uhvEE

Monday, October 20, 2014

Department of State and Foreign Operations Appropriations: A Fact Sheet on Legislation, FY1995-FY2015 – R43751

Congress currently appropriates foreign affairs funding through annual De ... http://p.ost.im/25gQvh

Energy and Water Development: FY2015 Appropriations – R43567

The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill provides funding for ... http://p.ost.im/2Bq7tD

Federal and State Quarantine and Isolation Authority – RL33201

In the wake of increasing fears about the spread of highly contagious dis ... http://p.ost.im/2HjXnA

Surface Transportation Program Reauthorization Issues for Congress – R43420

The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21; P.L. 112-1 ... http://p.ost.im/2UuyFR

Employment for Veterans: Trends and Programs – R42790

Veterans’ employment outcomes in the civilian labor market are an issue ... http://p.ost.im/2PyaER

Department of Housing and Urban Development: FY2015 Appropriations – R43548

The President’s FY2015 budget requested $46.7 billion in gross discreti ... http://p.ost.im/2S6mCe

EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed Rule to Define “Waters of the United States” – R43455

On March 25, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/2U8KTP

China’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United StatesChina’s Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States – RL33534

Prior to the initiation of economic reforms and trade liberalization 35 y ... http://p.ost.im/2m6VAS

Veterans’ Medical Care: FY2015 Appropriations – R43547

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides benefits to veterans who ... http://p.ost.im/2yywjH

GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures – R40228

For purposes of federal law, a bid protest involves a written objection t ... http://p.ost.im/2u5dU2

Multiemployer Defined Benefit (DB) Pension Plans: A Primer and Analysis of Policy Options – R43305

Multiemployer defined benefit (DB) pension plans are pensions sponsored b ... http://p.ost.im/2myLdm

U.S. Postal Service Workforce Size and Employment Categories, FY1994-FY2013 – RS22864U.S. Postal Service Workforce Size and Employment Categories, FY1994-FY2013 – RS22864

This report provides data from the past 20 years on the size of the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/2HPvdE

Phased Retirement: In Brief – R43755

On July 6, 2012, P.L. 112-141, the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st ... http://p.ost.im/2HbeQx

Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced? – RL34384

As a result of enforcement actions and settlements for noncompliance with ... http://p.ost.im/2BgtsX

Al Qaeda-Affiliated Groups: Middle East and Africa – R43756

After more than a decade of combating Al Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakista ... http://p.ost.im/2UqdeT

Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy – RL30588

Afghan security forces have lead security responsibility throughout the c ... http://p.ost.im/2BGykt

Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement – R43592

At the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Ninth Ministerial Conferenc ... http://p.ost.im/2AwUuf

Public Health Service Agencies: Overview and Funding – R43304

Within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), eight agencies ... http://p.ost.im/2Bu6V7

Appropriations and Fund Transfers in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – R41301

Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Afforda ... http://p.ost.im/2AtJJH

Child Welfare: Profiles of Current and Former Older Foster Youth Based on the National Youth in Transition Database (NYTD) – R43752

Congress has long been concerned with the well-being of older youth in fo ... http://p.ost.im/2mhpD8

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

House Offset Amendments to Appropriations Bills: Procedural Considerations – RL31055

One of the most common methods for changing spending priorities in approp ... http://p.ost.im/2Dn4uE

Extending Unemployment Compensation Benefits During Recessions – RL34340

This report describes the history of temporary federal extensions to unem ... http://p.ost.im/2fHSYj

Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program – RL33375

In response to concerns over the adequacy of firefighter staffing, the St ... http://p.ost.im/2uJb96

United States Fire Administration: An Overview – RS20071

The United States Fire Administration (USFA)—which includes the Nationa ... http://p.ost.im/25nd4e

Broadband Loan and Grant Programs in the USDA’s Rural Utilities Service – RL33816

Given the large potential impact broadband access may have on the economi ... http://p.ost.im/2ye6ud

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments – RL33548

A ban on all nuclear tests is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control ... http://p.ost.im/2m495t

The European Union: Questions and Answers – RS21372

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic partnership that repr ... http://p.ost.im/2Pg6GB

Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework – RL33404

The development of offshore oil, gas, and other mineral resources in the ... http://p.ost.im/2PBsYc

Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding – RL32341

The Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire gr ... http://p.ost.im/2Pjb4S

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses – RL32048

Since the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979, a priority of U.S. policy h ... http://p.ost.im/2AsTaa

Ebola: Basics About the Disease – R43750

In March 2014, global health officials recognized an outbreak of Ebola vi ... http://p.ost.im/2a6NpC

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy – 95-1013

The uprising against Bahrain’s Al Khalifa royal family that began on Fe ... http://p.ost.im/2ABKYb

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): FY2015 Appropriations – R43709

On July 15, 2014, the House Appropriations Committee approved $30.22 bill ... http://p.ost.im/2ftXUH

Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the 2012 Spectrum Act – R43256

The Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-96, si ... http://p.ost.im/2BQtXQ

Drug Enforcement in the United States: History, Policy, and Trends – R43749

The federal government prohibits the manufacturing, distribution, and pos ... http://p.ost.im/2DrVjN

Limitations in Appropriations Measures: An Overview of Procedural Issues – R41634

Both the House and Senate have internal rules encouraging the separation ... http://p.ost.im/2fwBKL

National Monuments and the Antiquities Act – R41330

The Antiquities Act of 1906 authorizes the President to proclaim national ... http://p.ost.im/2yUMhj

Reauthorization of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act (STELA) – R43490

One hundred fifteen million U.S. households watch television. Approximate ... http://p.ost.im/2mJkRB

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress – R42784

China’s actions for asserting and defending its maritime territorial an ... http://p.ost.im/2DHGFY

Mobile Technology and Spectrum Policy: Innovation and Competition – R43595

The convergence of Internet and mobile technologies has, within the last ... http://p.ost.im/2PVrWd

Congressional Power to Create Federal Courts: A Legal Overview – R43746

The United States Constitution established only one federal court—the U ... http://p.ost.im/2feKd9

SBA Small Business Investment Company Program – R41456

The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Small Business Investment ... http://p.ost.im/25KJK2

The Pacific Alliance: A Trade Integration Initiative in Latin America – R43748

The Pacific Alliance is a regional integration initiative formed by Chile ... http://p.ost.im/2UuX2M

Federal Public Transportation Program: In Brief – R42706

Federal assistance to public transportation is provided primarily through ... http://p.ost.im/2PCXMP

U.S. Military Action Against the Islamic State: Answers to Frequently Asked Legal Questions U.S. Military Action Against the Islamic State: Answers to Frequently Asked Legal Questions – R43720

Ongoing U.S. military operations against the Islamic State (which formerl ... http://p.ost.im/2AtQNc

Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data and Analysis – R43665

The federal government has provided a significant amount of money through ... http://p.ost.im/2fjJXm

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA): Frequently Asked Questions – R43747

On June 15, 2012, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) announced tha ... http://p.ost.im/2Bt6Dy

Commercial Filming and Photography on Federal Lands – R43267

Commercial filmmakers, videographers, and photographers often seek to use ... http://p.ost.im/2P5MCm

Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia – R43743

Since the enactment of the Commemorative Works Act (CWA) in 1986, Congres ... http://p.ost.im/2URExA

Monday, October 6, 2014

Fire Management Assistance Grants: Frequently Asked Questions – R43738

Section 420 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assis ... http://p.ost.im/2MtsgC

Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs and Unaccompanied Alien Children – R43737

The number of children coming to the United States who are not accompanie ... http://p.ost.im/22EeBS

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy – RS21852

The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more tha ... http://p.ost.im/2JA7tH

Legislative Support Resources: Offices and Websites for Congressional Staff – RS20120

This report, one of a series of reports on the legislative process, provi ... http://p.ost.im/2J97yR

Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act – R43289

Congress is deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protection ... http://p.ost.im/2M4wPM

Unaccompanied Alien Children: Demographics in Brief – R43734

The number of children coming to the United States who are not accompanie ... http://p.ost.im/YvqkVH

The U.S. Postal Service’s Financial Condition: A Primer – R43162

Since 1971, the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) has been a self-supporting gov ... http://p.ost.im/2eCCCj

Small Business Size Standards: A Historical Analysis of Contemporary Issues – R40860

Small business size standards are of congressional interest because the s ... http://p.ost.im/Yvfdgk

Implementation of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA, P.L. 111-353) – R43724

Congress passed comprehensive food safety legislation in December 2010 (F ... http://p.ost.im/2YSXJf

Corporate Expatriation, Inversions, and Mergers: Tax Issues – R43568

News reports in the late 1990s and early 2000s drew attention to a phenom ... http://p.ost.im/2rq764

Public Transportation Program and Funding Issues – R42966

The federal public transportation program, administered by the Federal Tr ... http://p.ost.im/YWcgE2

Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding – RL33243

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several types of prog ... http://p.ost.im/22vaFj

Food Safety Issues for the 113th Congress – R42885

Congress passed comprehensive food safety legislation in December 2010 (F ... http://p.ost.im/2epNk3

Poverty in the United States: 2013 – RL33069

In 2013, 45.3 million people were counted as poor in the United States un ... http://p.ost.im/22ERSx

Noncitizen Eligibility for Federal Public Assistance: Policy Overview and Trends – RL33809

The extent to which residents of the United States who are not U.S. citiz ... http://p.ost.im/22Jn5w

Revision of the Nutrition Facts Label: Proposed Rules – R43733

High rates of obesity and chronic diseases have prompted federal, state, ... http://p.ost.im/Y7PCSd

Medicare: Insolvency Projections – RS20946

Medicare is the nation’s health insurance program for persons age 65 an ... http://p.ost.im/2jrBD8

Federal Pell Grant Program of the Higher Education Act: How the Program Works and Recent Legislative Changes – R42446

The federal Pell Grant program, authorized by Title IV of the Higher Educ ... http://p.ost.im/Y7LePx

Unauthorized Aliens’ Access to Federal Benefits: Policy and Issues – RL34500

Federal law bars aliens residing without authorization in the United Stat ... http://p.ost.im/YTtnT2

Regulation of Clinical Tests: In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) Devices, Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), and Genetic Tests – R43438

In vitro diagnostic (IVD) devices are used in the analysis of human sampl ... http://p.ost.im/2ek7Q3