Executive Summaries of All CRS Reports

Thursday, June 11, 2015

Senate Rule XIV Procedure for Placing Measures Directly on the Senate Calendar – RS22309

When a Senator introduces a bill or joint resolution, or a House-passed b ... http://p.ost.im/rV6tgu

Bypassing Senate Committees: Rule XIV and Unanimous Consent – RS22299

Most bills and joint resolutions introduced in the Senate, and many House ... http://p.ost.im/r42XbP

Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements – RS22867

Earmark disclosure rules in both the House and Senate establish certain a ... http://p.ost.im/rXyQ8Y

Transportation Conformity Under the Clean Air Act – R44050

Under the Clean Air Act, areas that have not attained one or more of the ... http://p.ost.im/r4y4E5

Congressional Budget Office: Appointment and Tenure of the Director and Deputy Director – RL31880

The requirements regarding the appointment and tenure of the CBO director ... http://p.ost.im/r4tK9E

Legal Services Corporation: Background and Funding – RL34016

The Legal Services Corporation (LSC) is a private, nonprofit, federally f ... http://p.ost.im/rqwEbU

Agricultural Disaster Assistance – RS21212

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers several programs to help ... http://p.ost.im/rqNEXe

Federal Land Ownership: Acquisition and Disposal Authorities – RL34273

The federal government owns roughly 640 million acres, heavily concentrat ... http://p.ost.im/rqLTns

Invasive Species: Issues in Brief – R44049

For the first few centuries after the arrival of Europeans in North Ameri ... http://p.ost.im/r4EJFU

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions on Regulatory and Other Collegial Boards and Commissions, 113th Congress – R44043

The President makes appointments to certain positions within the federal ... http://p.ost.im/rV3GPm

Selected Issues in Homeland Security Policy for the 114th Congress – R44041

In 2001, in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11th, homeland ... http://p.ost.im/r4mMGn

ARPA-E and the FY2016 Budget Request – R43986

The Advanced Research Projects AgencyEnergy, or ARPA-E, was established t ... http://p.ost.im/rXbeE8

Defense Spending and the Budget Control Act Limits – R44039

Enacted on August 1, 2011, the Budget Control Act (BCA) as amended (P.L. ... http://p.ost.im/r4SFAD

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities – R43459

Beginning in summer 2013, media reports of foreign intelligence activitie ... http://p.ost.im/rX5eNV

Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief – R44042

This is an abbreviated version of an earlier report, CRS Report R40980, G ... http://p.ost.im/r4vFYe

In Brief: Options to Help Meet a Congressional Requirement for Nuclear Weapon “Pit” Production – R44047

A pit is the plutonium core of a thermonuclear weapon. Imploding it with ... http://p.ost.im/rXynTW

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security – R43014

International trade is a critical component of the U.S. economy, with U.S ... http://p.ost.im/rX7FBE

Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies – R41981

The principles of disaster management assume a leadership role by the loc ... http://p.ost.im/rXcgmR

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies – 98-446

This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help ... http://p.ost.im/rV6Hsr

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Waiver Authority and Modification of Volumes – R44045

Federal law requires that transportation fuels contain a minimum amount o ... http://p.ost.im/rVguRJ

Stored Communications Act: Reform of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) – R44036

In 1986, Congress enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA ... http://p.ost.im/r4f6Rm

Indian Health Service FY2016 Budget Request and Funding History: Fact Sheet – R44040

The Indian Health Service (IHS) within the Department of Health and Human ... http://p.ost.im/rXf9yD

Insurance Regulation: Background, Overview, and Legislation in the 114th Congress – R44046

The individual states have been the primary regulators of insurance since ... http://p.ost.im/rCmEBY

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress – R41153

The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities ... http://p.ost.im/r4xTMS

Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress – R43926

Cuba remains a one-party communist state with a poor record on human righ ... http://p.ost.im/rXgxT5

El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations – R43616

Congress has long maintained interest in El Salvador, a small Central Ame ... http://p.ost.im/rVgTje

Tuesday, June 9, 2015

International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions – R44015

In recent decades, the United States has entered into binding investment ... http://p.ost.im/rQ2fsH

Consumers and Food Price Inflation – R40545

The heightened price volatility of global commodity markets in 2008, the ... http://p.ost.im/rxQxXT

United Nations Reform: Background and Issues for Congress – RL33848

Since its establishment in 1945, the United Nations (U.N.) has undergone ... http://p.ost.im/rCWTjN

Nuclear Weapon “Pit” Production: Options to Help Meet a Congressional Requirement – R44033

A pit is the plutonium core of a thermonuclear weapon. Imploding it with ... http://p.ost.im/r9GexT

Pakistan-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 114th Congress – R44034

Congress has taken keen interest in U.S. relations with Pakistan, especia ... http://p.ost.im/r96Tpb

Iran Sanctions – RS20871

International sanctions on Irans key energy and financial sectors harmed ... http://p.ost.im/rCdq8n

Genomic Data and Privacy: Background and Relevant Law – R44026

Advances in genomics technology and information technology infrastructure ... http://p.ost.im/rQvFGa

The Future of Internet Governance: Should the U.S. Relinquish Its Authority Over ICANN? – R44022

Currently, the U.S. government retains limited authority over the Interne ... http://p.ost.im/rCJW8d

The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act (CWA): Rapanos and Beyond – RL33263

In 1985 and 2001, the Supreme Court grappled with issues as to the geogra ... http://p.ost.im/rHvLbS

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Functions and Funding – R44038

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), an agency within the D ... http://p.ost.im/rQDqyP

Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics – RS22380

The Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program was enacted in 1975 as a fede ... http://p.ost.im/rxTmYp

The 2015 National Security Strategy: Authorities, Changes, Issues for Congress – R44023

The Obama Administration released a new National Security Strategy (NSS) ... http://p.ost.im/rx3Jrq

The Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing (RRIF) Program – R44028

Congress created the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing (R ... http://p.ost.im/r9pJAu

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Statistics and Programs – RS20301

In 2013, U.S. teen births accounted for 7.0% of all births and 15.4% of a ... http://p.ost.im/rxFaLU

Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements – RL33865

Arms control and nonproliferation efforts are two of the tools that have ... http://p.ost.im/rCeM3a

Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief – R44037

The United States and the Kingdom of Cambodia have been strengthening bil ... http://p.ost.im/rxupDB

Legislative Branch: FY2016 Appropriations – R44029

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senat ... http://p.ost.im/rQNdM6

FY2016 Appropriations: District of Columbia – R44030

On February 2, 2015, the Obama Administration released its budget request ... http://p.ost.im/rQWeaD

“Regulatory Relief” for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress – R44035

The 114th Congress is considering legislation to provide regulatory relie ... http://p.ost.im/rxn2nq

Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in the 114th Congress: S. 697, S. 725, and a House Discussion Draft – R44024

Enacted in 1976, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is the primary f ... http://p.ost.im/r9QEbg

Tracking Federal Funds: USAspending.gov and Other Data Sources – R44027

Finding data on federal grants and contracts awarded to states and congre ... http://p.ost.im/rCYJPB

ESEA Reauthorization Proposals in the 114th Congress: Selected Key Issues – R43916

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was last comprehensivel ... http://p.ost.im/rHsvRv

Membership of the 114th Congress: A Profile – R43869

This report presents a profile of the membership of the 114th Congress (2 ... http://p.ost.im/rQ9xBX

Perspectives on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study and Enhanced Interrogation Techniques: In Brief – R43906

Much of the discussion and debate following the December release of the S ... http://p.ost.im/rxGuR4

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2016 Budget and Appropriations – R43901

On February 2, 2015, the Obama Administration submitted to Congress its b ... http://p.ost.im/rQgcjE

Clean Air Issues in the 114th Congress: An Overview – R43851

Oversight of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory actions has ... http://p.ost.im/rX6nQd

EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed “Waters of the United States” Rule: Congressional Response and Options – R43943

In April 2014, the Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) and the Environmen ... http://p.ost.im/rx6x8E

State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: Historical Precedents and Pending Litigation in Texas v. United States – R43839

States and localities can have significant interest in the manner and ext ... http://p.ost.im/r9wNKa

The America COMPETES Acts: An Overview – R43880

Scientific and technological advancement played a central role in ensurin ... http://p.ost.im/rQ9KRU

House Committee Funding: Description of Process and Analysis of Disbursements – R42778

Funding for House committees (except for the Committee on Appropriations) ... http://p.ost.im/rQVD4h

The Student Non-Discrimination Act (SNDA): A Legal Analysis – R42652

Introduced in each of the last several congressional sessions, the Studen ... http://p.ost.im/rQwE56

Individual Mandate under ACA – R41331

Since 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111 ... http://p.ost.im/rQm3Ts

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents – R43317

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and indi ... http://p.ost.im/rxCw5M

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions – R43780

Recent reports that certain entities continued to receive federal governm ... http://p.ost.im/rQ8ddK

Employment for Veterans: Trends and Programs – R42790

Veterans employment outcomes in the civilian labor market are an issue of ... http://p.ost.im/rxnLkA

Senate Committee Funding: Description of Process and Analysis of Disbursements – R43160

Funding for Senate committees (except for the Committee on Appropriations ... http://p.ost.im/rCcaw8

U.S. Global Health Assistance: FY2001-FY2016 – R43115

Congressional support for global health programs has remained strong for ... http://p.ost.im/rQbUnd

Deployable Federal Assets Supporting Domestic Disaster Response Operations: Summary and Considerations for Congress – R43560

For most disasters across the nation, the affected local, state, or triba ... http://p.ost.im/rC2Hgc

Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act – R43289

Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protec ... http://p.ost.im/r98fRf

U.S. Grain Standards Act: Potential Reauthorization in the 114th Congress – R43803

Under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) of 1916, the federal ... http://p.ost.im/r97v6p

Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation – R43480

Congress has at times expressed concern regarding ballistic missile and n ... http://p.ost.im/rCyq7W

Human-Induced Earthquakes from Deep-Well Injection: A Brief Overview – R43836

The development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources using hor ... http://p.ost.im/rXJ6yw

Appropriations and Fund Transfers in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – R41301

Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Afforda ... http://p.ost.im/rQbJwV

Tuesday, June 2, 2015

Congressional Franking Privilege: Background and Recent Legislation – RS22771

The congressional franking privilege, which dates from 1775, allows Membe ... http://p.ost.im/rHDdWx

Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy – RS21513

Kuwait remains pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region ... http://p.ost.im/rACRvT

“The Expanding Cyber Threat” – T-012715

Chairwoman Comstock, Ranking Member Johnson, and distinguished Members of ... http://p.ost.im/ruuPkH

Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program – RL33644

The federal government provides grants for voluntary family planning serv ... http://p.ost.im/rHHcnY

Iran’s Foreign Policy – R44017

Irans foreign policy is product of many (and sometimes conflicting) facto ... http://p.ost.im/rmkgpU

The Future of Internet Governance: Should the U.S. Relinquish Its Authority Over ICANN? – R44022

Currently, the U.S. government retains limited authority over the Interne ... http://p.ost.im/rSmGq3

“Does Administrative Amnesty Harm our Efforts to Gain and Maintain Operational Control of the Border?” – T-100411

Chairman Miller, Ranking Member Cuellar, and members of the House Homelan ... http://p.ost.im/rfFuGq

United States Senate Fiscal 2015 Budget Request – T-040814

Madam Chair, Senator Hoeven, and Members of the Subcommittee: It is a p ... http://p.ost.im/ryLfNj

Franking Privilege: Mass Mailings and Mass Communications in the House, 1997-2014 – RL34458

Despite significant reductions in congressional mail postage costs over t ... http://p.ost.im/rmrPRK

International Air Service Controversies: Frequently Asked Questions – R44016

Open skies agreements are a form of international civil air service agree ... http://p.ost.im/rudkVN

U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement – RL33192

Negotiated by the Reagan Administration nearly 30 years ago, the current ... http://p.ost.im/rUstcR

The Help America Vote Act and Election Administration: Overview and Issues – RS20898

The deadlocked November 2000 presidential election focused national atten ... http://p.ost.im/rDN87Q

In-Country Refugee Processing: In Brief – R44020

The Obama Administration has established a new refugee program for certai ... http://p.ost.im/runnvV

Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 1735, the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2016 – R44019

Following are selected highlights of H.R. 1735, the National Defense Auth ... http://p.ost.im/rDnLxY

“Water as a Geopolitical Threat” – T-011614

Chairman Rohrabacher, Ranking Member Keating, other distinguished Members ... http://p.ost.im/ru8AL4

Burundi’s Electoral Crisis: In Brief – R44018

Widespread opposition to Burundian President Pierre Nkurunzizas decision ... http://p.ost.im/ryx4wv

Federal Grand Juries: The Law in a Nutshell – RS20214

The federal grand jury exists to investigate crimes against the United St ... http://p.ost.im/rA9K43

S.132, the New Columbia Admissions Act – T-091514

Chairman Carper, Ranking Member Coburn, and members of the Committee: M ... http://p.ost.im/raxNVC

What’s the Difference? — Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data – RS22640

The size of the U.S. bilateral trade deficit with China has been and cont ... http://p.ost.im/rybcqR

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions – R43491

Legislation to reauthorize Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), sometimes cal ... http://p.ost.im/rmBJWG

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress – R42351

The Internet is often described as a network of networks because it is no ... http://p.ost.im/raKQ9U

Youth and the Labor Force: Background and Trends – R42519

Congress has indicated a strong interest in ensuring that todays young pe ... http://p.ost.im/rDp7Qe

Maternal and Infant Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program: Background and Funding – R43930

The federal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) ... http://p.ost.im/rUAD2V

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity fr ... http://p.ost.im/ruqJ4q

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress – R43242

Exchange rates are among the most important prices in the global economy. ... http://p.ost.im/rf3Xtp

Older Americans Act: Background and Overview – R43414

Originally enacted in 1965, the Older Americans Act (OAA) supports a wide ... http://p.ost.im/ryNRst

School Meals Programs and Other USDA Child Nutrition Programs: A Primer – R43783

Child nutrition programs is an overarching term used to describe the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/rDtQub

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress – R42543

Congress included provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creat ... http://p.ost.im/rUYpAy

The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 114th Congress – R43923

Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) t ... http://p.ost.im/ryShqG

The America COMPETES Acts: An Overview – R43880

Scientific and technological advancement played a central role in ensurin ... http://p.ost.im/rUGx7d

A Fact Sheet on Post-Acute Care Payment System Reform Efforts – M-061013

At your request, this memorandum contains an overview of payment system r ... http://p.ost.im/rAppCM

Funding History for the World Trade Center Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program – M-062510

Per your request, this memorandum provides a funding history for the Worl ... http://p.ost.im/rDwRn6

Selected Health-Related Expiring Provisions, 1st Session of the 113th Congress – M-062413

Among the duties of the Congressional Research Service, as specified in 2 ... http://p.ost.im/rfvSBK

Presidential Permitting of Border Crossing Energy Facilities – M-081613

You asked us to provide information and analysis responsive to various qu ... http://p.ost.im/ru3w2H

Historical Role of the Federal Government in Catastrophic Disasters – M-102207

Per your request, I have prepared this memorandum providing information o ... http://p.ost.im/ruDdxn

Budget Process Considerations Associated with the Immigration Examinations Fee Account, 8 U.S.C. 1356(m) and (n) – M-120814

This memorandum responds to your request for a brief explanation of the b ... http://p.ost.im/rH6Vhu

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs – R40929

In an increasingly global economy, and with retirement underway for the B ... http://p.ost.im/ruvegR

Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate – R40616

As congressional policymakers continue to debate telecommunications refor ... http://p.ost.im/rytnHE

RMP Facilities in the United States as of December 2014 – M-120314

This memorandum responds to your request regarding facilities that submit ... http://p.ost.im/rDmMmF

U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The M̩rida Initiative and Beyond РR41349

Violence perpetrated by a range of criminal groups continues to threaten ... http://p.ost.im/rDynDr

Discussion of Tax Reform That Cuts the Top Income Tax Rate to 28% – M-100512

This memorandum responds to your request for a discussion of the effect o ... http://p.ost.im/ryFCY5

Evaluating Whether the HHS Information Memorandum Regarding Section 1115 Waivers for State TANF Programs is a Rule Under the Congressional Review Act – M-091212

This memorandum responds to your question about the Information Memorandu ... http://p.ost.im/rPpnnK

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision in Massachusetts v. EPA: A Chronology – R41103

In 2007, the Supreme Court rendered one of its most important environment ... http://p.ost.im/rHeVgt

Medicare and Medicaid Expiring Provisions, 1st Session of the 113th Congress – M-053113

Among the duties of the Congressional Research Service, as specified in 2 ... http://p.ost.im/rfd3qb

EPA Grants to Members of Selected EPA Advisory Committees – M-082712

This memorandum responds to your request for information about current an ... http://p.ost.im/rHehWJ

High Risk Pools Under PPACA and the Coverage of Elective Abortion Service – M-082310

This memorandum responds to your request concerning the temporary high ri ... http://p.ost.im/ruF4Wj

Legal Analysis of Availability of Premium Tax Credits in State and Federally Created Exchanges Pursuant to the Affordable Care Act – M-072312-B

This memorandum analyzes whether premium tax credits available to certain ... http://p.ost.im/rHk8s6