Executive Summaries of All CRS Reports

Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Reform: An Overview of Proposals to Manage the Growth in the SSDI Rolls – R43054

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) provides benefits to nonelder ... http://p.ost.im/j7S2LA

Cuba: U.S. Policy and Issues for the 113th Congress – R43024

On January 15, 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published ... http://p.ost.im/jvB5rv

Water Quality Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview – R42883

Much progress has been made in achieving the ambitious goals that Congres ... http://p.ost.im/j79n5u

Air Quality: EPA’s 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter (PM) Standard – R42934

On January 15, 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published ... http://p.ost.im/jxf6Qs

Energy Policy: 114th Congress Issues – R42756

Energy policy in the United States has focused on three major goals: assu ... http://p.ost.im/jvQR4y

Emergency Assistance for Agricultural Land Rehabilitation – R42854

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) administers several permanently ... http://p.ost.im/jagLsy

Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress – R42723

On January 6, 2011, after spending approximately $3 billion in developmen ... http://p.ost.im/jtAcgV

Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress – R42567

The Coast Guards program of record (POR) calls for procuring 8 National S ... http://p.ost.im/jmFPfr

Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2015 – R41545

The average service tenure of Members of the Senate and House of Represen ... http://p.ost.im/j452Pt

Federal Land Management Agencies and Programs: CRS Experts – R42656

The following tables provide the names and contact information for CRS ex ... http://p.ost.im/jvUQVF

EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track? – R41561

Since Barack Obama was sworn in as President in 2009, the Environmental P ... http://p.ost.im/jbV23D

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress – R42351

The Internet is often described as a network of networks because it is no ... http://p.ost.im/jqECQE

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity fr ... http://p.ost.im/jtj5fs

North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions – R41438

U.S. economic sanctions imposed on North Korea are instigated by that cou ... http://p.ost.im/ju3mvt

Appropriations: CRS Experts – R42638

Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that incl ... http://p.ost.im/jcSR5P

Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation – R40529

The use of biomass as an energy feedstock has regularly been presented as ... http://p.ost.im/jtkpyL

Contract Types: Legal Overview – R41168

Federal procurement contracts are commonly divided into two main typesfix ... http://p.ost.im/jb6fdW

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies – 98-446

This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help ... http://p.ost.im/jcx7jR

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues – R40957

The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) culminated years of effor ... http://p.ost.im/jv2cCj

Wildfires: CRS Experts – R40884

The following table provides access to names and contact information for ... http://p.ost.im/jtG9dr

Federal Crop Insurance: Background – R40532

The federal crop insurance program began in 1938 when Congress authorized ... http://p.ost.im/j78pRE

Public Health and Emergency Preparedness: CRS Experts – R40904

The following table provides access to names and contact information for ... http://p.ost.im/jvtn2U

Reauthorizing the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2000 – R41303

Many counties are compensated for the tax-exempt status of federal lands. ... http://p.ost.im/jbXhtB

Internet Domain Names: Background and Policy Issues – 97-868

Navigating the Internet requires using addresses and corresponding names ... http://p.ost.im/jb2bC4

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Overview of EPA’s Rule Regulating the Disposal of Coal Combustion Residues – IN10208

On December 19, 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rele ... http://p.ost.im/jpuNyV

Confusion Over “Likelihood of Confusion” Standards in Supreme Court Trademark Case – NB2014121104

Does a finding by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board preclude a distric ... http://p.ost.im/ju9tBu

Former Senator Edward W. Brooke’s Low-Income Housing Policy Legacy – IN10210

One aspect of his housing policy legacy is eponymously and variously refe ... http://p.ost.im/j43rkw

Justice Department Releases New Guidance on Discriminatory Profiling – NB2015011106

Recently, several high-profile incidents involving the use of police forc ... http://p.ost.im/jVdR53

U.S. District Court Nominees Confirmed During the 113thCongress: Time from Nomination to Confirmation Prior to, and Following, the Reinterpretation of the Application of Senate Rule XXII – IN10207

The process by which U.S. circuit and district court judges are nominated ... http://p.ost.im/jWW4V4

The Low-Inflation Conundrum – IN10206

Inflation, defined as the rate of change in the overall prices of goods a ... http://p.ost.im/j7aWhg

Congress Faces Calls to Address Expiring ACA Funds for Primary Care – IN10185

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), enacted in March 2010, appropriated billio ... http://p.ost.im/jtJGD8

Supreme Court Considering Whether Alabama Legislative Redistricting Map is an Unconstitutional Racial Gerrymander – NB2014121103

Although each state has its own process for conducting redistricting, con ... http://p.ost.im/jndgeX

Standards for Display of Religious Symbols in VA Chapels – NB2015011109

Although news stories circulating last year have drawn attention to the d ... http://p.ost.im/jVJCSR

Congress Contemplates Extending Volcker Rule Conformance Period for CLO Investments – NB2015011105

On the second day of the 114th Congress, the House voted on a bill, H.R. ... http://p.ost.im/jpVxRv

SEC Issues New Credit Rating Agency Reform Rules – NB2015011108

On August 27, 2014, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) by a 3-2 ... http://p.ost.im/jHMJWt

European Security, Islamist Terrorism, and Returning Fighters – IN10209

On January 7, 2015, gunmen killed at least 12 people during an attack on ... http://p.ost.im/ja2DK6

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Deferred Action, Advance Parole, and Adjustment of Status

The Obama Administrations recent announcement that it is expanding its De ... http://p.ost.im/jHsAuL

Medicare Preferred Pharmacy Networks – IF10037

The Issue: Private insurers participating in the Medicare Part D prescrip ... http://p.ost.im/jW2nH7

Cuba: President Obama’s New Policy Approach – IF10045

On December 17, 2014, President Obama announced major developments in U.S ... http://p.ost.im/jGBa9q

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant – IF10036

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant was create ... http://p.ost.im/jmqVvb

Reductions to Mandatory Agricultural Conservation Programs in Appropriations Law – IF10041

Federal spending for agricultural conservation programs (which assist agr ... http://p.ost.im/jq8Bhs

DOD Train and Equip Authorities to Counter the Islamic State – IF10040

Department of Defense (DOD) programs to train and arm foreign military an ... http://p.ost.im/jQht85

Introduction to Financial Services: Banking – IF10035

The word bank is commonly used to refer to entities that act as financial ... http://p.ost.im/jxsxxR

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) – IF10038

What is TPA? Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), previously fast track, is t ... http://p.ost.im/j5EGqb

Introduction to Financial Services: Insurance Regulation – IF10043

This In Focus provides a summary of the insurance regulatory system in th ... http://p.ost.im/jbX2YF

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions – R43491

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), formerly called fast track, likely will ... http://p.ost.im/js7QjS

State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: Historical Precedents and Pending Litigation – R43839

States and localities can have significant interest in the manner and ext ... http://p.ost.im/jxGCKn

Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress – RL31181

Technological innovation is a primary engine of long-term economic growth ... http://p.ost.im/jnbfHF

Congressional Salaries and Allowances: In Brief – RL30064

This report provides basic information on congressional salaries and allo ... http://p.ost.im/jWejrL

A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense-Issues for Congress – R43838

World events since late 2013 have led some observers to conclude that the ... http://p.ost.im/jQUrQR

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Eligibility and Benefit Amounts in State TANF Cash Assistance Programs – R43634

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant helps stat ... http://p.ost.im/jtguTb

Constitutional Authorities Under Which Congress Regulates State Taxation – R43842

A variety of clauses in the U.S. Constitution provide direct and implicit ... http://p.ost.im/jGQUSR

The U.S. Postal Service’s Financial Condition: A Primer – R43162

Since 1971, the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) has been a self-supporting gov ... http://p.ost.im/jpY8AJ

Terrorism Risk Insurance Legislation in the 113th Congress: Issue Summary and Side-by- Side Analysis – R43619

Prior to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, insurance covering te ... http://p.ost.im/jXbGvr

The ACA Medicaid Expansion – R43564

Historically, Medicaid eligibility has generally been limited to certain ... http://p.ost.im/jnNvBd

Federal Income Taxes and Noncitizens: Frequently Asked Questions – R43840

This report answers frequently asked questions about noncitizens and fede ... http://p.ost.im/jbVKjq

Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions – R43311

The United States has led the international community in imposing economi ... http://p.ost.im/jp6GwL

International Trade and Finance: Key Policy Issues for the 114th Congress – R43841

The U.S. Constitution grants authority over the regulation of foreign com ... http://p.ost.im/jqfSRP

Keystone XL: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Assessments in the Final Environmental Impact Statement – R43415

On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced a national Climate Action Pla ... http://p.ost.im/jbM5y3

Monday, January 12, 2015

Mexico: Background and U.S. Relations – R42917

Congress has maintained significant interest in neighboring Mexico, a clo ... http://p.ost.im/jn2vCR

Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund: Programs and Policy Issues – R42770

As communities face a variety of economic challenges, some are looking to ... http://p.ost.im/ja9q6d

The President’s State of the Union Address: Tradition, Function, and Policy Implications – R40132

The State of the Union address is a communication between the President a ... http://p.ost.im/junhWc

Canadian Oil Sands: Life-Cycle Assessments of Greenhouse Gas Emissions – R42537

Canadian Oil Sands and Climate Change Recent congressional interest in ... http://p.ost.im/j4dYWR

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): A Primer on Eligibility and Benefits – R42505

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly called the ... http://p.ost.im/jGncc7

Clean Air Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview – R42895

Oversight of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory actions was ... http://p.ost.im/jQYBaK

Secret Sessions of the House and Senate: Authority, Confidentiality, and Frequency – R42106

Secret, or closed, sessions of the House and Senate exclude the press and ... http://p.ost.im/jGaHyT

The Presidential Records Act: Background and Recent Issues for Congress – R40238

Presidential documents are historical resources that capture each incumbe ... http://p.ost.im/jgVBQ7

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues – R40477

In the United States, desalination and membrane technologies are used to ... http://p.ost.im/juSt3E

Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry – R42138

Border enforcement is a core element of the Department of Homeland Securi ... http://p.ost.im/jmkAns

Tuesday, January 6, 2015

Congressional Oversight Manual – RL30240

The Congressional Research Service (CRS) developed the Congressional Over ... http://p.ost.im/jspLQk

Mountaintop Mining: Background on Current Controversies – RS21421

Mountaintop removal mining involves removing the top of a mountain in ord ... http://p.ost.im/jtBAaV

Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32109

As part of its proposed FY2015 budget, the Navy is requesting funding for ... http://p.ost.im/jQPvue

Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs and Funding – RL33243

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several types of prog ... http://p.ost.im/jppAkJ

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief – R43772

The Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), enacted in 1998, imple ... http://p.ost.im/jswXpK

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer – RL32948

From an environmental quality standpoint, much of the public and policy i ... http://p.ost.im/jHNBhk

Human-Induced Earthquakes from Deep-Well Injection: A Brief Overview – R43836

The development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources using hor ... http://p.ost.im/jsn5CY

Agricultural Disaster Assistance – RS21212

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers several programs to help ... http://p.ost.im/jagSk7

State Sponsors of Acts of International Terrorism-Legislative Parameters: In Brief – R43835

Cuba, Iran, and Syria are identified by the U.S. government as countries ... http://p.ost.im/jG8pAs

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): FY2015 Appropriations – R43709

On July 15, 2014, the House Appropriations Committee approved $30.22 bill ... http://p.ost.im/jtJSQJ

The Peace Corps: Current Issues – RS21168

Founded in 1961, the Peace Corps has sought to meet its legislative manda ... http://p.ost.im/jgKmd6

Increased Campaign Contribution Limits in the FY2015 Omnibus Appropriations Law: Frequently Asked Questions – R43825

This report provides brief answers to frequently asked questions about in ... http://p.ost.im/jp3Y9d

FY2015 Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations: Fact Sheet – R43578

Funding for the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is prov ... http://p.ost.im/jCxYwd

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32665

The Navys proposed FY2015 budget requests funding for the procurement of ... http://p.ost.im/jgvT2m

Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress – RS22478

Names for Navy ships traditionally have been chosen and announced by the ... http://p.ost.im/jXuJ5t

Monday, January 5, 2015

DHS Headquarters Consolidation Project: Issues for Congress – R42753

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was established in early 2003, ... http://p.ost.im/jGt8DD

EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed Rule to Define “Waters of the United States” – R43455

On March 25, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/jGQxd2

NASA: Issues for Authorization, Appropriations, and Oversight in the 114th Congress – R43144

Spaceflight fascinates and inspires many Americans, but in a time of cons ... http://p.ost.im/jsj4p3

Reauthorization of the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act (STELA) – R43490

One hundred sixteen million U.S. households watch television. Approximate ... http://p.ost.im/jp2SGJ

Small Business Administration Trade and Export Promotion Programs – R43155

According to Census Bureau data, approximately 1% of small businesses in ... http://p.ost.im/juM2V6

Latin America and the Caribbean: Key Issues for the 113th Congress – R42956

Geographic proximity has ensured strong linkages between the United State ... http://p.ost.im/jg8KwR

Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA’s 2015 Revision – R43092

On November 26, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced ... http://p.ost.im/j9tdgG

NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet – R43419

In the current fiscal environment, congressional deliberations about the ... http://p.ost.im/jVxjrc

Navy LX(R) Amphibious Ship Program: Background and Issues for Congress – R43543

The LX(R) program is a program to build a new class of 11 amphibious ship ... http://p.ost.im/jQED6G

Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Legislative and Executive Branch Initiatives – R43195

The September 11, 2012, attack on U.S. facilities in Benghazi, Libya, pro ... http://p.ost.im/jajUBp

Biological Opinions for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: A Case Law Summary – R41876

For decades biologists, water users, and lawmakers (both federal and stat ... http://p.ost.im/jVQrQr

Water Infrastructure Financing: The Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) Program – R43315

Policy makers have recently been considering several legislative options ... http://p.ost.im/js3PmL

Water Quality Issues in the 113th Congress: An Overview – R42883

Much progress has been made in achieving the ambitious goals that Congres ... http://p.ost.im/jbwqe6

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress – R42784

Chinas actions for asserting and defending its maritime territorial and e ... http://p.ost.im/jbTNqa

Financial Aid for Students: Online Resources – R43108

This report identifies various online sources for planning and acquiring ... http://p.ost.im/jg7wvv

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity fr ... http://p.ost.im/jXEQCN

EPA’s Vessel General Permits: Background and Issues – R42142

In November 2011 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed two C ... http://p.ost.im/juxGcw

Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data – R42346

The federal government owns roughly 640 million acres, about 28% of the 2 ... http://p.ost.im/jamHJy

Small Business Administration Microloan Program – R41057

The Small Business Administrations (SBAs) Microloan program provides dire ... http://p.ost.im/jm9enV

Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress – R41909

Multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC) are special c ... http://p.ost.im/jVhLfq

Navy Shipboard Lasers for Surface, Air, and Missile Defense: Background and Issues for Congress – R41526

Department of Defense (DOD) development work on high-energy military lase ... http://p.ost.im/jXwdaa

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Categorical Eligibility – R42054

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides benefits to ... http://p.ost.im/jx7XME

Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress – R42567

The Coast Guards program of record (POR) calls for procuring 8 National S ... http://p.ost.im/j5pkcs

SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues – R42695

Several federal agencies, including the Small Business Administration (SB ... http://p.ost.im/jXnc8k

Small Business Administration 504/CDC Loan Guaranty Program – R41184

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers programs to support s ... http://p.ost.im/jspr7r

Small Business Administration HUBZone Program – R41268

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to s ... http://p.ost.im/j4YfVh

Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress – R41129

The Navys proposed FY2015 budget requests $1,219.3 million for continued ... http://p.ost.im/jqb5fx

Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry – R42138

Border enforcement is a core element of the Department of Homeland Securi ... http://p.ost.im/jm9vKH

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress – R41153

The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities ... http://p.ost.im/jmGLjv

Social Security Administration (SSA): Budget Issues – R41716

The Social Security Administration (SSA) administers the Old-Age and Surv ... http://p.ost.im/jGrVvF

Definitions of “Inherently Governmental Function” in Federal Procurement Law and Guidance – R42325

Functions that federal law and policy require to be performed by governme ... http://p.ost.im/jmJU2X

Rural Water Supply and Sewer Systems: Background Information – 98-64

The Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act impose requirements r ... http://p.ost.im/j5TmsU

Guinea: In Brief – R40703

At present, Guinea is one of three countries most affected by the Ebola o ... http://p.ost.im/jx3xLn

Small Business Administration 7(a) Loan Guaranty Program – R41146

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to s ... http://p.ost.im/j5Kr8t

Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs – R41352

The Small Business Administration (SBA) has provided technical and manage ... http://p.ost.im/jsH7M8