Executive Summaries of All CRS Reports

Thursday, June 11, 2015

Senate Rule XIV Procedure for Placing Measures Directly on the Senate Calendar – RS22309

When a Senator introduces a bill or joint resolution, or a House-passed b ... http://p.ost.im/rV6tgu

Bypassing Senate Committees: Rule XIV and Unanimous Consent – RS22299

Most bills and joint resolutions introduced in the Senate, and many House ... http://p.ost.im/r42XbP

Earmark Disclosure Rules in the Senate: Member and Committee Requirements – RS22867

Earmark disclosure rules in both the House and Senate establish certain a ... http://p.ost.im/rXyQ8Y

Transportation Conformity Under the Clean Air Act – R44050

Under the Clean Air Act, areas that have not attained one or more of the ... http://p.ost.im/r4y4E5

Congressional Budget Office: Appointment and Tenure of the Director and Deputy Director – RL31880

The requirements regarding the appointment and tenure of the CBO director ... http://p.ost.im/r4tK9E

Legal Services Corporation: Background and Funding – RL34016

The Legal Services Corporation (LSC) is a private, nonprofit, federally f ... http://p.ost.im/rqwEbU

Agricultural Disaster Assistance – RS21212

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers several programs to help ... http://p.ost.im/rqNEXe

Federal Land Ownership: Acquisition and Disposal Authorities – RL34273

The federal government owns roughly 640 million acres, heavily concentrat ... http://p.ost.im/rqLTns

Invasive Species: Issues in Brief – R44049

For the first few centuries after the arrival of Europeans in North Ameri ... http://p.ost.im/r4EJFU

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions on Regulatory and Other Collegial Boards and Commissions, 113th Congress – R44043

The President makes appointments to certain positions within the federal ... http://p.ost.im/rV3GPm

Selected Issues in Homeland Security Policy for the 114th Congress – R44041

In 2001, in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11th, homeland ... http://p.ost.im/r4mMGn

ARPA-E and the FY2016 Budget Request – R43986

The Advanced Research Projects AgencyEnergy, or ARPA-E, was established t ... http://p.ost.im/rXbeE8

Defense Spending and the Budget Control Act Limits – R44039

Enacted on August 1, 2011, the Budget Control Act (BCA) as amended (P.L. ... http://p.ost.im/r4SFAD

Overview of Constitutional Challenges to NSA Collection Activities – R43459

Beginning in summer 2013, media reports of foreign intelligence activitie ... http://p.ost.im/rX5eNV

Government Collection of Private Information: Background and Issues Related to the USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization in Brief – R44042

This is an abbreviated version of an earlier report, CRS Report R40980, G ... http://p.ost.im/r4vFYe

In Brief: Options to Help Meet a Congressional Requirement for Nuclear Weapon “Pit” Production – R44047

A pit is the plutonium core of a thermonuclear weapon. Imploding it with ... http://p.ost.im/rXynTW

U.S. Customs and Border Protection: Trade Facilitation, Enforcement, and Security – R43014

International trade is a critical component of the U.S. economy, with U.S ... http://p.ost.im/rX7FBE

Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies – R41981

The principles of disaster management assume a leadership role by the loc ... http://p.ost.im/rXcgmR

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies – 98-446

This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help ... http://p.ost.im/rV6Hsr

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Waiver Authority and Modification of Volumes – R44045

Federal law requires that transportation fuels contain a minimum amount o ... http://p.ost.im/rVguRJ

Stored Communications Act: Reform of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) – R44036

In 1986, Congress enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA ... http://p.ost.im/r4f6Rm

Indian Health Service FY2016 Budget Request and Funding History: Fact Sheet – R44040

The Indian Health Service (IHS) within the Department of Health and Human ... http://p.ost.im/rXf9yD

Insurance Regulation: Background, Overview, and Legislation in the 114th Congress – R44046

The individual states have been the primary regulators of insurance since ... http://p.ost.im/rCmEBY

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress – R41153

The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities ... http://p.ost.im/r4xTMS

Cuba: Issues for the 114th Congress – R43926

Cuba remains a one-party communist state with a poor record on human righ ... http://p.ost.im/rXgxT5

El Salvador: Background and U.S. Relations – R43616

Congress has long maintained interest in El Salvador, a small Central Ame ... http://p.ost.im/rVgTje

Tuesday, June 9, 2015

International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions – R44015

In recent decades, the United States has entered into binding investment ... http://p.ost.im/rQ2fsH

Consumers and Food Price Inflation – R40545

The heightened price volatility of global commodity markets in 2008, the ... http://p.ost.im/rxQxXT

United Nations Reform: Background and Issues for Congress – RL33848

Since its establishment in 1945, the United Nations (U.N.) has undergone ... http://p.ost.im/rCWTjN

Nuclear Weapon “Pit” Production: Options to Help Meet a Congressional Requirement – R44033

A pit is the plutonium core of a thermonuclear weapon. Imploding it with ... http://p.ost.im/r9GexT

Pakistan-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 114th Congress – R44034

Congress has taken keen interest in U.S. relations with Pakistan, especia ... http://p.ost.im/r96Tpb

Iran Sanctions – RS20871

International sanctions on Irans key energy and financial sectors harmed ... http://p.ost.im/rCdq8n

Genomic Data and Privacy: Background and Relevant Law – R44026

Advances in genomics technology and information technology infrastructure ... http://p.ost.im/rQvFGa

The Future of Internet Governance: Should the U.S. Relinquish Its Authority Over ICANN? – R44022

Currently, the U.S. government retains limited authority over the Interne ... http://p.ost.im/rCJW8d

The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act (CWA): Rapanos and Beyond – RL33263

In 1985 and 2001, the Supreme Court grappled with issues as to the geogra ... http://p.ost.im/rHvLbS

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Functions and Funding – R44038

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), an agency within the D ... http://p.ost.im/rQDqyP

Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics – RS22380

The Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program was enacted in 1975 as a fede ... http://p.ost.im/rxTmYp

The 2015 National Security Strategy: Authorities, Changes, Issues for Congress – R44023

The Obama Administration released a new National Security Strategy (NSS) ... http://p.ost.im/rx3Jrq

The Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing (RRIF) Program – R44028

Congress created the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing (R ... http://p.ost.im/r9pJAu

Teenage Pregnancy Prevention: Statistics and Programs – RS20301

In 2013, U.S. teen births accounted for 7.0% of all births and 15.4% of a ... http://p.ost.im/rxFaLU

Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements – RL33865

Arms control and nonproliferation efforts are two of the tools that have ... http://p.ost.im/rCeM3a

Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief – R44037

The United States and the Kingdom of Cambodia have been strengthening bil ... http://p.ost.im/rxupDB

Legislative Branch: FY2016 Appropriations – R44029

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senat ... http://p.ost.im/rQNdM6

FY2016 Appropriations: District of Columbia – R44030

On February 2, 2015, the Obama Administration released its budget request ... http://p.ost.im/rQWeaD

“Regulatory Relief” for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress – R44035

The 114th Congress is considering legislation to provide regulatory relie ... http://p.ost.im/rxn2nq

Proposed Amendments to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) in the 114th Congress: S. 697, S. 725, and a House Discussion Draft – R44024

Enacted in 1976, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is the primary f ... http://p.ost.im/r9QEbg

Tracking Federal Funds: USAspending.gov and Other Data Sources – R44027

Finding data on federal grants and contracts awarded to states and congre ... http://p.ost.im/rCYJPB

ESEA Reauthorization Proposals in the 114th Congress: Selected Key Issues – R43916

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was last comprehensivel ... http://p.ost.im/rHsvRv

Membership of the 114th Congress: A Profile – R43869

This report presents a profile of the membership of the 114th Congress (2 ... http://p.ost.im/rQ9xBX

Perspectives on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) Study and Enhanced Interrogation Techniques: In Brief – R43906

Much of the discussion and debate following the December release of the S ... http://p.ost.im/rxGuR4

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2016 Budget and Appropriations – R43901

On February 2, 2015, the Obama Administration submitted to Congress its b ... http://p.ost.im/rQgcjE

Clean Air Issues in the 114th Congress: An Overview – R43851

Oversight of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory actions has ... http://p.ost.im/rX6nQd

EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed “Waters of the United States” Rule: Congressional Response and Options – R43943

In April 2014, the Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) and the Environmen ... http://p.ost.im/rx6x8E

State Challenges to Federal Enforcement of Immigration Law: Historical Precedents and Pending Litigation in Texas v. United States – R43839

States and localities can have significant interest in the manner and ext ... http://p.ost.im/r9wNKa

The America COMPETES Acts: An Overview – R43880

Scientific and technological advancement played a central role in ensurin ... http://p.ost.im/rQ9KRU

House Committee Funding: Description of Process and Analysis of Disbursements – R42778

Funding for House committees (except for the Committee on Appropriations) ... http://p.ost.im/rQVD4h

The Student Non-Discrimination Act (SNDA): A Legal Analysis – R42652

Introduced in each of the last several congressional sessions, the Studen ... http://p.ost.im/rQwE56

Individual Mandate under ACA – R41331

Since 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111 ... http://p.ost.im/rQm3Ts

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents – R43317

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and indi ... http://p.ost.im/rxCw5M

Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions – R43780

Recent reports that certain entities continued to receive federal governm ... http://p.ost.im/rQ8ddK

Employment for Veterans: Trends and Programs – R42790

Veterans employment outcomes in the civilian labor market are an issue of ... http://p.ost.im/rxnLkA

Senate Committee Funding: Description of Process and Analysis of Disbursements – R43160

Funding for Senate committees (except for the Committee on Appropriations ... http://p.ost.im/rCcaw8

U.S. Global Health Assistance: FY2001-FY2016 – R43115

Congressional support for global health programs has remained strong for ... http://p.ost.im/rQbUnd

Deployable Federal Assets Supporting Domestic Disaster Response Operations: Summary and Considerations for Congress – R43560

For most disasters across the nation, the affected local, state, or triba ... http://p.ost.im/rC2Hgc

Legislative Actions to Repeal, Defund, or Delay the Affordable Care Act – R43289

Congress remains deeply divided over implementation of the Patient Protec ... http://p.ost.im/r98fRf

U.S. Grain Standards Act: Potential Reauthorization in the 114th Congress – R43803

Under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) of 1916, the federal ... http://p.ost.im/r97v6p

Iran-North Korea-Syria Ballistic Missile and Nuclear Cooperation – R43480

Congress has at times expressed concern regarding ballistic missile and n ... http://p.ost.im/rCyq7W

Human-Induced Earthquakes from Deep-Well Injection: A Brief Overview – R43836

The development of unconventional oil and natural gas resources using hor ... http://p.ost.im/rXJ6yw

Appropriations and Fund Transfers in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – R41301

Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Afforda ... http://p.ost.im/rQbJwV

Tuesday, June 2, 2015

Congressional Franking Privilege: Background and Recent Legislation – RS22771

The congressional franking privilege, which dates from 1775, allows Membe ... http://p.ost.im/rHDdWx

Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy – RS21513

Kuwait remains pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region ... http://p.ost.im/rACRvT

“The Expanding Cyber Threat” – T-012715

Chairwoman Comstock, Ranking Member Johnson, and distinguished Members of ... http://p.ost.im/ruuPkH

Title X (Public Health Service Act) Family Planning Program – RL33644

The federal government provides grants for voluntary family planning serv ... http://p.ost.im/rHHcnY

Iran’s Foreign Policy – R44017

Irans foreign policy is product of many (and sometimes conflicting) facto ... http://p.ost.im/rmkgpU

The Future of Internet Governance: Should the U.S. Relinquish Its Authority Over ICANN? – R44022

Currently, the U.S. government retains limited authority over the Interne ... http://p.ost.im/rSmGq3

“Does Administrative Amnesty Harm our Efforts to Gain and Maintain Operational Control of the Border?” – T-100411

Chairman Miller, Ranking Member Cuellar, and members of the House Homelan ... http://p.ost.im/rfFuGq

United States Senate Fiscal 2015 Budget Request – T-040814

Madam Chair, Senator Hoeven, and Members of the Subcommittee: It is a p ... http://p.ost.im/ryLfNj

Franking Privilege: Mass Mailings and Mass Communications in the House, 1997-2014 – RL34458

Despite significant reductions in congressional mail postage costs over t ... http://p.ost.im/rmrPRK

International Air Service Controversies: Frequently Asked Questions – R44016

Open skies agreements are a form of international civil air service agree ... http://p.ost.im/rudkVN

U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement – RL33192

Negotiated by the Reagan Administration nearly 30 years ago, the current ... http://p.ost.im/rUstcR

The Help America Vote Act and Election Administration: Overview and Issues – RS20898

The deadlocked November 2000 presidential election focused national atten ... http://p.ost.im/rDN87Q

In-Country Refugee Processing: In Brief – R44020

The Obama Administration has established a new refugee program for certai ... http://p.ost.im/runnvV

Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 1735, the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2016 – R44019

Following are selected highlights of H.R. 1735, the National Defense Auth ... http://p.ost.im/rDnLxY

“Water as a Geopolitical Threat” – T-011614

Chairman Rohrabacher, Ranking Member Keating, other distinguished Members ... http://p.ost.im/ru8AL4

Burundi’s Electoral Crisis: In Brief – R44018

Widespread opposition to Burundian President Pierre Nkurunzizas decision ... http://p.ost.im/ryx4wv

Federal Grand Juries: The Law in a Nutshell – RS20214

The federal grand jury exists to investigate crimes against the United St ... http://p.ost.im/rA9K43

S.132, the New Columbia Admissions Act – T-091514

Chairman Carper, Ranking Member Coburn, and members of the Committee: M ... http://p.ost.im/raxNVC

What’s the Difference? — Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data – RS22640

The size of the U.S. bilateral trade deficit with China has been and cont ... http://p.ost.im/rybcqR

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions – R43491

Legislation to reauthorize Trade Promotion Authority (TPA), sometimes cal ... http://p.ost.im/rmBJWG

Internet Governance and the Domain Name System: Issues for Congress – R42351

The Internet is often described as a network of networks because it is no ... http://p.ost.im/raKQ9U

Youth and the Labor Force: Background and Trends – R42519

Congress has indicated a strong interest in ensuring that todays young pe ... http://p.ost.im/rDp7Qe

Maternal and Infant Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) Program: Background and Funding – R43930

The federal Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) ... http://p.ost.im/rUAD2V

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity fr ... http://p.ost.im/ruqJ4q

Current Debates over Exchange Rates: Overview and Issues for Congress – R43242

Exchange rates are among the most important prices in the global economy. ... http://p.ost.im/rf3Xtp

Older Americans Act: Background and Overview – R43414

Originally enacted in 1965, the Older Americans Act (OAA) supports a wide ... http://p.ost.im/ryNRst

School Meals Programs and Other USDA Child Nutrition Programs: A Primer – R43783

Child nutrition programs is an overarching term used to describe the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/rDtQub

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress – R42543

Congress included provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creat ... http://p.ost.im/rUYpAy

The White House Office of Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 114th Congress – R43923

Congress established the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) t ... http://p.ost.im/ryShqG

The America COMPETES Acts: An Overview – R43880

Scientific and technological advancement played a central role in ensurin ... http://p.ost.im/rUGx7d

A Fact Sheet on Post-Acute Care Payment System Reform Efforts – M-061013

At your request, this memorandum contains an overview of payment system r ... http://p.ost.im/rAppCM

Funding History for the World Trade Center Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program – M-062510

Per your request, this memorandum provides a funding history for the Worl ... http://p.ost.im/rDwRn6

Selected Health-Related Expiring Provisions, 1st Session of the 113th Congress – M-062413

Among the duties of the Congressional Research Service, as specified in 2 ... http://p.ost.im/rfvSBK

Presidential Permitting of Border Crossing Energy Facilities – M-081613

You asked us to provide information and analysis responsive to various qu ... http://p.ost.im/ru3w2H

Historical Role of the Federal Government in Catastrophic Disasters – M-102207

Per your request, I have prepared this memorandum providing information o ... http://p.ost.im/ruDdxn

Budget Process Considerations Associated with the Immigration Examinations Fee Account, 8 U.S.C. 1356(m) and (n) – M-120814

This memorandum responds to your request for a brief explanation of the b ... http://p.ost.im/rH6Vhu

Vulnerable Youth: Employment and Job Training Programs – R40929

In an increasingly global economy, and with retirement underway for the B ... http://p.ost.im/ruvegR

Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate – R40616

As congressional policymakers continue to debate telecommunications refor ... http://p.ost.im/rytnHE

RMP Facilities in the United States as of December 2014 – M-120314

This memorandum responds to your request regarding facilities that submit ... http://p.ost.im/rDmMmF

U.S.-Mexican Security Cooperation: The Mérida Initiative and Beyond – R41349

Violence perpetrated by a range of criminal groups continues to threaten ... http://p.ost.im/rDynDr

Discussion of Tax Reform That Cuts the Top Income Tax Rate to 28% – M-100512

This memorandum responds to your request for a discussion of the effect o ... http://p.ost.im/ryFCY5

Evaluating Whether the HHS Information Memorandum Regarding Section 1115 Waivers for State TANF Programs is a Rule Under the Congressional Review Act – M-091212

This memorandum responds to your question about the Information Memorandu ... http://p.ost.im/rPpnnK

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court’s Climate Change Decision in Massachusetts v. EPA: A Chronology – R41103

In 2007, the Supreme Court rendered one of its most important environment ... http://p.ost.im/rHeVgt

Medicare and Medicaid Expiring Provisions, 1st Session of the 113th Congress – M-053113

Among the duties of the Congressional Research Service, as specified in 2 ... http://p.ost.im/rfd3qb

EPA Grants to Members of Selected EPA Advisory Committees – M-082712

This memorandum responds to your request for information about current an ... http://p.ost.im/rHehWJ

High Risk Pools Under PPACA and the Coverage of Elective Abortion Service – M-082310

This memorandum responds to your request concerning the temporary high ri ... http://p.ost.im/ruF4Wj

Legal Analysis of Availability of Premium Tax Credits in State and Federally Created Exchanges Pursuant to the Affordable Care Act – M-072312-B

This memorandum analyzes whether premium tax credits available to certain ... http://p.ost.im/rHk8s6

Wednesday, May 20, 2015

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

New Abortion Law Prohibits “Dismemberment Abortions” – NB201504176

A Kansas bill that prohibits the performance of dismemberment abortions w ... http://p.ost.im/rrbTAj

Supreme Court Again Considers Required Accommodations for Religious Beliefs in the Workplace – NB201504177

While the landmark 2014 decision in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. p ... http://p.ost.im/rhKTAA

Yates v. U.S.: Plain Text v. Context – NB201503173

A May 2014 Legal Sidebar opened with a question: Can a foot-and-a-half lo ... http://p.ost.im/rrv2rL

Separating Power Series: Presidential Influence v. Control Over Independent Agencies Continued – NB201503169

As described in the prior Sidebar, existing statutory provisions generall ... http://p.ost.im/rrQEQy

“Not a Couple of Bad Apples” – FDA Approves Genetically Engineered Apples and Potatoes – NB201504178

On March 20, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) completed its ev ... http://p.ost.im/rSxWJQ

The “M” in MBank is Not for “Marijuana” – NB201504181

In mid-January, MBank, a Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)-ins ... http://p.ost.im/rhs28y

Appeals Court Affirms Dismissal of Challenge to 2012 Deferred Action Program – NB201504174

Yesterday, April 7, 2015, a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fi ... http://p.ost.im/rhH4fy

Retroactivity of LWOP Sentencing for Juvenile Offenders Still in Flux – NB201503168

Tate was a juvenile convicted of second degree murder. He was sentenced t ... http://p.ost.im/rSVUJ5

The EPA and Army Corps’ Proposed Redefinition of “Waters of the United States”: Legal Background – NB201503172

From its earliest days, Congress grappled with how far geographically to ... http://p.ost.im/rBLVkG

Cybersecurity Doesn’t Trump National Interest in Labor Certifications – NB201504175

The national interest is not harmed by requiring an immigrant seeking wor ... http://p.ost.im/rhsJwb

Proposed Legislation Would Amend “Nonmanufacturer Rule” in Response to Rotech Decision – NB201504179

Among the provisions in the procurement reform legislation introduced in ... http://p.ost.im/rrHF59

Supreme Court Sends Pregnancy Discrimination Case Back to Lower Court – NB201503171

In a highly anticipated ruling in Young v. United Parcel Service, the Sup ... http://p.ost.im/rAk2DQ

Another Year, Another Hobby Lobby? Challenges to the Contraceptive Coverage Requirement by Religious Nonprofits Continue Winding Through the Courts – NB201504174

Leading to speculation that another significant Affordable Care Act (ACA) ... http://p.ost.im/rrnD34

Supreme Court Rules: Incorrect Standards Used in Upholding Alabama Redistricting Map Against Claim of Unconstitutional Racial Gerrymandering – NB201504180

The U.S. Supreme Court decided on March 25 that a lower court applied inc ... http://p.ost.im/rSCtXt

Rail Safety Efforts Miss Leading Cause of Fatalities – IN10257

As it debates reauthorization of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 ... http://p.ost.im/rhrj7H

H.R. 2: What Happens If the “Doc Fix” Expires Without New Legislation? – IN10255

On March 26, 2015, the House passed the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthor ... http://p.ost.im/rrcRV2

Israel After the 2015 Elections: What Does Netanyahu’s Victory Mean for U.S. Policy? – IN10251

"The Israeli Knesset elections held on March 17, 2015, were a subject of ... http://p.ost.im/rhQj7L

Will the Lawful Collection of Genetic Information as Part of an Employer Wellness Program Remain Voluntary? – IN10253

"Since the passage of health reform, which encouraged use of wellness pro ... http://p.ost.im/rksKA8

The State of Federal Recordkeeping: Emails and Private Communication Devices – IN10254

"The use of private communications devices and computer servers by execut ... http://p.ost.im/rh9ggW

Queen-of-the-Hill and Amendments to the FY16 Budget Resolution in the House – IN10252

"A resolution reported by the House Rules Committee can be used to regula ... http://p.ost.im/rr9sUa

Draft Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement Reached in Burma – IN10256

Burma has endured more than six decades of low-grade civil war since its ... http://p.ost.im/rhDDYK

OSHA’s Proposed Crystalline Silica Standards – IN10258

On September 12, 2013, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration ... http://p.ost.im/rSgaxj

Attribution in Cyberspace: Challenges for U.S. Law Enforcement – IN10259

Who did it? Attribution, some may argue, is a challenge "as old as crime ... http://p.ost.im/rS59sg

CHIP Extension in Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Bill – IN10247

FY2015 is the final year for which federal funding for the State Children ... http://p.ost.im/rAhXjd

Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Overview of EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed Rule to Define “Waters of the United States” – IF10125

In April 2014, the Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) and the Environmen ... http://p.ost.im/rr62X6

Cuba: President Obama’s New Policy Approach – IF10045

On December 17, 2014, President Obama announced major developments in U.S ... http://p.ost.im/rS4gDr

U.S. International Food Aid Programs – IF10194

For over six decades, the United States has played a leading role in glob ... http://p.ost.im/rM3A7R

Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Al Murabitoun – IF10172

AQIM was formed when the Algerian Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat ... http://p.ost.im/rkbxBB

Army Corps of Engineers: FY2016 Appropriations – IF10176

The Energy and Water Development bill provides funding for the civil prog ... http://p.ost.im/rBctxh

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank – IF10154

On October 24, 2014, China launched a new development bank, the Asian Inf ... http://p.ost.im/rr49ud

California Drought: Water Supply and Conveyance Issues – IF10133

More than 93% of the state of California is experiencing severe drought, ... http://p.ost.im/rkcnHJ

Ansar al Sharia in Tunisia and the Okba Ibn Nafaa Brigade – IF10171

Ansar al Sharia in Tunisia (AAS-T) was founded in 2011, after the popular ... http://p.ost.im/rBHqcW

Monday, May 11, 2015

International Trade Agreements and Job Estimates – IF10161

The Obama Administration currently is negotiating two comprehensive and h ... http://p.ost.im/rBr3Fn

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank – IF10154

On October 24, 2014, China launched a new development bank, the Asian Inf ... http://p.ost.im/rk3rwR

U.S. Trade Policy: Background and Current Issues – IF10156

Congress plays a major role in U.S. trade policy through its legislative ... http://p.ost.im/rrxVWY

Somalia – IF10155

Somalia has long been characterized as the classic failed state, plagued ... http://p.ost.im/rrSDtE

Cybersecurity – IF10159

Information and communications technology (ICT) has evolved greatly over ... http://p.ost.im/rhR4eP

Introduction to Financial Services: “Regulatory Relief” – IF10162

The 114th Congress is considering legislation to provide regulatory relie ... http://p.ost.im/rBWewN

Cybersecurity and Information Sharing – IF10163

This In Focus summarizes the issues related to sharing information about ... http://p.ost.im/rBfvgc

Educational Accountability and Reauthorization of the ESEA – IF10157

Federal policies aiming to improve the effectiveness of schools have hist ... http://p.ost.im/rkAKPx

The Rule of Law in Mexico and the Mérida Initiative – IF10160

Mexico, a top U.S. trade partner and political ally, has struggled to add ... http://p.ost.im/rhXsR9

A Snapshot of Student Loan Debt – IF10158

A growing reliance on federal student loans to finance increasingly costl ... http://p.ost.im/rhUPCk

Tuesday, May 5, 2015

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32665

The Navys proposed FY2016 budget requests funding for the procurement of ... http://p.ost.im/rhCnWV

Status of the Federal Perkins Loan Program: Frequently Asked Questions – R43959

The Federal Perkins Loan program authorizes the allocation of federal fun ... http://p.ost.im/rrnKDV

Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32109

The Navy has been procuring Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class Aegis destroyers ... http://p.ost.im/rBkEgg

Human Rights in China and U.S. Policy: Issues for the 114th Congress – R43964

This report examines human rights issues in the Peoples Republic of China ... http://p.ost.im/rrGJXT

Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress – RL32418

The Navy has been procuring Virginia (SSN-774) class nuclear-powered atta ... http://p.ost.im/rrsC5p

Transportation Security: Issues for the 114th Congress – RL33512

The nations air, land, and marine transportation systems are designed for ... http://p.ost.im/rrqEXW

Energy and Water Development: FY2016 Appropriations – R43966

The Energy and Water Development appropriations bill provides funding for ... http://p.ost.im/rhJser

Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress – RS20643

CVN-78, CVN-79, and CVN-80 are the first three ships in the Navys new Ger ... http://p.ost.im/rr6xaF

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress – RL33153

China is building a modern and regionally powerful Navy with a modest but ... http://p.ost.im/rry5AQ

The United Kingdom: Background and Relations with the United States – RL33105

Many U.S. officials and Members of Congress view the United Kingdom (UK) ... http://p.ost.im/rS8QwS

Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups – RL33313

Over the past several decades, Congress, by statute, has established a wi ... http://p.ost.im/rr6m6y

DOE’s Office of Science and the FY2016 Budget Request – R43963

The Department of Energys Office of Science conducts basic research in si ... http://p.ost.im/rk9Ya5

Social Security and Same-Sex Marriage: Frequently Asked Questions – R43961

In United States v. Windsor, the U.S. Supreme Court held that Section 3 o ... http://p.ost.im/rSx2fc

Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention – R43960

This report provides material on the latest crisis in Yemen and the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/rhRDqG

Domestic Drones and Privacy: A Primer – R43965

It has been three years since Congress enacted the FAA Modernization and ... http://p.ost.im/rkRA6E

The United Arab Emirates (UAE): Issues for U.S. Policy – RS21852

The UAE has been a significant U.S. partner in Gulf security for more tha ... http://p.ost.im/rhdFQ7

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress – RL34391

The Coast Guards FY2013 budget initiated a new project for the design and ... http://p.ost.im/rh4gur

Health Care-Related Expiring Provisions, First Session of the 114th Congress – R43958

This report provides a list of selected health-related programs and activ ... http://p.ost.im/rhF8SB

Thursday, April 30, 2015

China-U.S. Trade Issues – RL33536

U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past three ... http://v.iew.im/rLGaLC

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses – RL32048

Since the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979, a priority of U.S. policy h ... http://v.iew.im/r2ULJD

The Federal Communications Commission: Current Structure and Its Role in the Changing Telecommunications Landscape – RL32589

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent federal age ... http://v.iew.im/MvySxW

Mandatory Spending Since 1962 – RL33074

Federal spending is divided into three broad categories: discretionary sp ... http://v.iew.im/rYUAKS

Proposals to Reduce Premium Subsidies for Federal Crop Insurance – R43951

Many farm policymakers generally consider the federal crop insurance prog ... http://v.iew.im/MbtvJD

U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and – RL33640

Even though the United States plans to reduce the number of warheads depl ... http://v.iew.im/M75Pq5

Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs – RL30478

Although the federal government has played a significant role in developi ... http://v.iew.im/rNT5yA

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): A Primer for the 114th Congress – RL33872

In the ongoing energy debate in Congress, one issue has been whether to a ... http://v.iew.im/rYF3pn

Research Tax Credit: Current Law and Policy Issues for the 114th Congress – RL31181

Technological innovation is a primary engine of long-term economic growth ... http://v.iew.im/rF6R6v

House Standing Committee Chairs and Ranking Minority Members: Rules Governing Selection Procedures – RS21165

House rules, Republican Conference rules, and Democratic Caucus rules eac ... http://v.iew.im/MgVmyC

Older Americans Act: Funding Formulas – RS22549

The Older Americans Act (OAA) is the major vehicle for the delivery of so ... http://v.iew.im/rFNFAG

Vulnerable Youth: Background and Policies – RL33975

The majority of young people in the United States grow up healthy and saf ... http://v.iew.im/MpGVeF

The Section 179 and Bonus Depreciation Expensing Allowances: Current Law and Issues for the 114th Congress – RL31852

Expensing is the most accelerated form of depreciation for tax purposes. ... http://v.iew.im/rNCxgf

Special Order Speeches: Current House Practices – RL30136

Special order speeches (commonly called special orders) usually take plac ... http://v.iew.im/rNbkMF

One-Minute Speeches: Current House Practices – RL30135

Recognition for one-minute speeches (commonly called one minutes) in the ... http://v.iew.im/Mv6mqj

Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress – RS22478

Names for Navy ships traditionally have been chosen and announced by the ... http://v.iew.im/rLcTPe

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress – RL34391

The Coast Guards FY2013 budget initiated a new project for the design and ... http://v.iew.im/rFu7Vs

International Drug Control Policy: Background and U.S. Responses – RL34543

The global illegal drug trade represents a multi-dimensional challenge th ... http://v.iew.im/r2FKve

Pesticide Use and Water Quality: Are the Laws Complementary or in Conflict? – RL32884

This report provides background on the emerging conflict over interpretat ... http://v.iew.im/rNYfUQ

Thursday, March 26, 2015

ESEA Reauthorization Proposals in the 114th Congress: Selected Key Issues – R43916

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was last amended by the ... http://v.iew.im/M2rHym

Domestic Human Trafficking Legislation in the 114th Congress – R43917

Legislation aimed at combating trafficking in persons (TIP) is a top item ... http://v.iew.im/M22jQk

Climate Change Adaptation by Federal Agencies: An Analysis of Plans and Issues for Congress – R43915

Though Congress has debated the significance of global climate change and ... http://v.iew.im/Mj2sC9

The President’s Immigration Accountability Executive Action of November 20, 2014: Overview and Issues – R43852

On November 20, 2014, President Obama announced his Immigration Accountab ... http://v.iew.im/MN9ArW

Export-Import Bank: Overview and Reauthorization Issues – R43581

The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank or the Bank), a w ... http://v.iew.im/MY6TQM

State Sponsors of Acts of International Terrorism-Legislative Parameters: In Brief – R43835

Cuba, Iran, Sudan, and Syria are identified by the U.S. government as cou ... http://v.iew.im/MYhrTe

Legislation to Facilitate Cybersecurity Information Sharing: Economic Analysis – R43821

Data breaches, such as those at Target, Home Depot, Neiman Marcus, JPMorg ... http://v.iew.im/MmYLsV

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed Rule to Define “Waters of the United States” – R43455

On March 25, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. ... http://v.iew.im/MNMPSR

The National Wild and Scenic Rivers System: A Brief Overview – R42614

The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-542, 16 U.S.C. 1271 et se ... http://v.iew.im/MAMLM2

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions – R43215

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as ame ... http://v.iew.im/MaU983

Ozone Air Quality Standards: EPA’s 2015 Revision – R43092

On November 26, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced ... http://v.iew.im/M2Bqp7

Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions – R43311

The United States has led the international community in imposing economi ... http://v.iew.im/MAuphU

The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress – R43240

The Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) is the Armys proposed replacemen ... http://v.iew.im/MSefPM

Locate an Agency or Program Within Appropriations Bills – R40858

The major source of appropriated funds for each of the following federal ... http://v.iew.im/ManhA6

Legal Authorities Governing Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses – R42391

Congress has generally broad authority to impose requirements upon the fe ... http://v.iew.im/MjKkeH

Teacher Quality Issues in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act – R42127

One of the major goals of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1 ... http://v.iew.im/MFeePu

Small Business Management and Technical Assistance Training Programs – R41352

The Small Business Administration (SBA) has provided technical and manage ... http://v.iew.im/MFn76F

Access to Broadband Networks: The Net Neutrality Debate – R40616

As congressional policy makers continue to debate telecommunications refo ... http://v.iew.im/MhsyP7

Social Security Administration (SSA): Budget Issues – R41716

The Social Security Administration (SSA) administers the Old-Age and Surv ... http://v.iew.im/MS9qUw

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections – 98-684

This report provides the results of recent elections in Latin America and ... http://v.iew.im/Mhxpsq

Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Benefit – R40611

The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 200 ... http://v.iew.im/MN2sHM

Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy – 95-1013

An uprising against Bahrains Al Khalifa royal family that began on Februa ... http://v.iew.im/MFMNAX

Tuesday, March 17, 2015

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2014 – RL30076

Senators and Representatives are frequently asked to support or sponsor p ... http://v.iew.im/MNFWtW

Health Care for Dependents and Survivors of Veterans – RS22483

The Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Aff ... http://v.iew.im/MFQj7L

International Law and Agreements: Their Effect upon U.S. Law – RL32528

This report provides an introduction to the roles that international law ... http://v.iew.im/Mr3G9E

Debarment and Suspension of Government Contractors: Legal Overview – RL34753

Debarment and suspension (collectively known as exclusion) are of perenni ... http://v.iew.im/MNv6qa

Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy – RL33460

A pro-reform, pro-Western government has emerged in Ukraine after the col ... http://v.iew.im/MNwTNU

Refugee Admissions and Resettlement Policy – RL31269

A refugee is a person fleeing his or her country because of persecution o ... http://v.iew.im/MMj65u

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): FY2015 Appropriations – R43709

Enacted on December 16, 2014, Title II of Division F of the Consolidated ... http://v.iew.im/MrfdER

Small Business Administration 504/CDC Loan Guaranty Program – R41184

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers programs to support s ... http://v.iew.im/MYPcnM

Tax Deductions for Individuals: A Summary – R42872

Every tax filer has the option to claim deductions when filing their inco ... http://v.iew.im/MMBXV5

A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals in Brief – R43760

In 2014, the armed offensive of the Islamic State (IS, also known as ISIL ... http://v.iew.im/M2RXr4

An Overview of the Housing Finance System in the United States – R42995

When making a decision about housing, a household must choose between ren ... http://v.iew.im/M2UjuK

U.S. Farm Income Outlook for 2015 – R40152

According to USDAs Economic Research Service (ERS), national net farm inc ... http://v.iew.im/MM2r2d