Executive Summaries of All CRS Reports

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

Confusion Over “Likelihood of Confusion” Standards in Supreme Court Trademark Case – NB2014121101

Does a finding by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board preclude a distric ... http://p.ost.im/jmpTDa

Supreme Court Considering Whether Alabama Legislative Redistricting Map is an Unconstitutional Racial Gerrymander – NB2014121102

Although each state has its own process for conducting redistricting, con ... http://p.ost.im/jaBxea

The Cyberattack on Sony: Impact on U.S.-North Korea Relations – IN10203

Controversy over a Hollywood comedy produced by Sony Pictures Entertainme ... http://p.ost.im/j4vKeL

Options for Establishing a Temporary Advisory Body – IF10028

Temporary advisory bodies are formal groups established to provide indepe ... http://p.ost.im/jbWHuE

Introduction to Financial Services: The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – IF10032

To help restore confidence in the securities markets in the wake of the s ... http://p.ost.im/jmWpe4

China, U.S. Leadership, and Geopolitical Challenges in Asia – IF10029

The U.S.-China trade and economic relationship has expanded significantly ... http://p.ost.im/jgYLMa

Congressional Commissions: Costs and Cost-Saving Strategies – IF10027

Congress, make recommendations for changes in public policy, study or inv ... http://p.ost.im/jb7kT7

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and International Trade – IF10033

What is intellectual property (IP), and how is it protected? IP is a crea ... http://p.ost.im/ja5Npr

The Global Health Security Agenda and International Health Regulations – IF10022

In recent years, a succession of new and reemerging infectious diseases h ... http://p.ost.im/jC6pRq

U.S.-China Trade Issues – IF10030

Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. China is currently the United States th ... http://p.ost.im/jHSSSM

Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) Reauthorization – IF10017

What is Ex-Im Bank? As the official U.S. export credit agency (ECA), Ex-I ... http://p.ost.im/jpFbv9

Cuba: Release of Alan Gross and Major Changes to U.S. Policy – IN10202

On December 17, 2014, President Obama announced in a televised address ma ... http://p.ost.im/jb4FwH

Introduction to Financial Services: The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) – IF10031

The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) was established by the Do ... http://p.ost.im/jmT7j8

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Anti-Terrorist/Anti-Money Laundering Information-Sharing by Financial Institutions under FINCEN’s Regulations – NB2014121091

Information-sharing programs developed by Treasurys Financial Crimes Enfo ... http://p.ost.im/jgsQMN

Extraterritorial Application of Dodd-Frank Whistleblower Statute in $30-35 Million Reward – NB2014121093

On September 22, 2014, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) annou ... http://p.ost.im/jXg7Xy

Supreme Court Hears Oral Arguments in Pregnancy Discrimination Case – NB2014121100

Must an employer provide reasonable accommodations to pregnant employees? ... http://p.ost.im/jsT8cu

Claim for Security Screening Time – NB2014121096

A rider in the cromnibus spending bill that would amend the swaps pushout ... http://p.ost.im/jsPSu7

Anti-Terrorist/Anti-Money Laundering Information-Sharing by Financial Institutions under FINCEN’s Regulations – NB2014121091

Information-sharing programs developed by Treasurys Financial Crimes Enfo ... http://p.ost.im/jgJ9Dh

The Global Health Security Agenda and International Health Regulations – IF10022

In recent years, a succession of new and reemerging infectiousdiseases ha ... http://p.ost.im/jgfqhx

Big Deal? U.S. Changes Stance on Cruelty Prohibition – NB2014121097

In connection with the presentation of the U.S. periodic report to the U. ... http://p.ost.im/jsexME

Latin America and Climate Change – IN10195

On December 1-12, 2014, representatives from 195 countries gathered in Li ... http://p.ost.im/jakMpW

Supreme Court Denies Compensation – NB2014121095

This week, the Supreme Court concluded that two former warehouse workers ... http://p.ost.im/jse76M

Space Exploration – IF10016

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA) is the primary fe ... http://p.ost.im/jHLSxA

The Congressional Review Act (CRA) – IF10023

What is the CRA? The CRA (codified at 5 U.S.C. 801-808) is an oversight ... http://p.ost.im/jbNbLX

Does the President Have the Authority to Implement an Expansion of the WTO Information Technology Agreement Without a Further Congressional Enactment? – NB2014121092

During President Obamas November 2014 visit to China, the United States a ... http://p.ost.im/j9WSHv

Selected CRS Materials on Detention and Interrogation of Terrorist Suspects and Enemy Belligerents – NB2014121098

The release of the executive summary of the Senate Select Committee on In ... http://p.ost.im/jp6YSb

Cybersecurity Issues and Challenges – IF10001

Information and communications technology (ICT) isubiquitous and increasi ... http://p.ost.im/jX4Jhm

Special Prosecutors: Investigations and Prosecutions of Police Use of Deadly Force – NB2014121094

With grand juries in Ferguson, Missouri and Staten Island, New York votin ... http://p.ost.im/jbyqTh

Economic Crisis in Russia – IN10200

On December 15, investors started a massive sell-off of Russia's currency ... http://p.ost.im/jbgfwY

Strip Tease? Supreme Court to Hear 11th Circuit’s Decision Permitting “Strip Off” of Junior, Underwater Mortgages in Bankruptcy – NB2014121099

On Monday, November 17, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear two appeals ... http://p.ost.im/jpyVtR

Benefit Reductions for Participants in Multiemployer Defined Benefit (DB) Pension Plans in H.R. 83, the Omnibus Appropriations Act – IN10196

The Multiemployer Pension Reform Act of 2014, an amendment to the Senate ... http://p.ost.im/ju9VYE

2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review: Evolution of a Strategic Review – IF10024

In June 2014, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)reported the secon ... http://p.ost.im/jqgw5G

Cybersecurity: FISMA Reform – IN10186

Two bills to revise the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISM ... http://p.ost.im/jpSE5J

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to Begin Contributions to Affordable Housing Funds – IN10201

On December 11, 2014, Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) Director Mel ... http://p.ost.im/jgRHmt

Inland Waterways Trust Fund – IF10020

What Is It? The Inland Waterways Trust Fund (IWTF) is aspecial fund in th ... http://p.ost.im/jxxtXj

The SSCI Study of the CIA’s Detention and Interrogation Program: Issues to Consider – IN10197

A 500-page Executive Summary of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligen ... http://p.ost.im/jq9kRv

The Islamic State in Egypt: Implications for U.S.-Egyptian Relations – IN10199

In early November 2014, the Sinai Peninsula-based terrorist group formall ... http://p.ost.im/jXdvs2

The Impact of Japan’s December 2014 Elections – IN10198

On December 14, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe led his Liberal Democratic Part ... http://p.ost.im/jxSVde

Monday, December 29, 2014

Insurance Agent Licensing: Overview and Background on Federal NARAB Legislation – R43095

The individual states have been the primary regulators of insurance in th ... http://p.ost.im/jsPGdt

EPA’s Proposed Greenhouse Gas Regulations for Existing Power Plants: Frequently Asked Questions – R43572

Taking action to address climate change by reducing U.S. emissions of gre ... http://p.ost.im/j48654

Congressional Liaison Offices of Selected Federal Agencies – 98-446

This list of about 200 congressional liaison offices is intended to help ... http://p.ost.im/jVAhLR

The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor – RL30725

Article 1, Section 2 of the Constitution sets a term of office of two yea ... http://p.ost.im/jQJCyX

Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers – R40206

The Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers (TAAF) program provides techn ... http://p.ost.im/jsmGWP

The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11 – RL33110

With enactment of the FY2014 Consolidated Appropriations Act on January 1 ... http://p.ost.im/j4VQAq

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions – RL32760

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant funds a wi ... http://p.ost.im/jgxPCw

Constitutional Points of Order in the Senate – R40948

In general, the Senates presiding officer does not take the initiative in ... http://p.ost.im/jgGeDp

Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights – RS21968

Since the 2011 U.S. military withdrawal from Iraq, reemergent sectarian a ... http://p.ost.im/jausn5

Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 – RL30957

This report, updated through the 113th Congress, discusses U.S. security ... http://p.ost.im/jgjnmB

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments – RS22570

Since 2000, the U.S. military has been building up forward-deployed force ... http://p.ost.im/jbEY8w

Israel: Background and U.S. Relations – RL33476

Since Israels founding in 1948, successive U.S. Presidents and many Membe ... http://p.ost.im/jbUBNr

PILT (Payments in Lieu of Taxes): Somewhat Simplified – RL31392

Under federal law, local governments (usually counties) are compensated t ... http://p.ost.im/j9JYPq

Security Assistance Reform: “Section 1206″ Background and Issues for Congress – RS22855

Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal ... http://p.ost.im/jmjr8j

Coordinated Party Expenditures in Federal Elections: An Overview – RS22644

A provision of federal campaign finance law, codified at 52 U.S.C. 30116( ... http://p.ost.im/j4Cpa6

Electoral College Reform: Contemporary Issues for Congress – R43824

The electoral college method of electing the President and Vice President ... http://p.ost.im/j4ELG3

Increased Individual Campaign Contribution Limits in the FY2015 Omnibus Appropriations Bill: Frequently Asked Questions – R43825

This report provides brief answers to frequently asked questions about pr ... http://p.ost.im/jCCqVt

Federal Land Management Agencies: Appropriations and Revenues – R43822

A perennial focus for Congress is on appropriations for management of fed ... http://p.ost.im/jVxvR8

The National Popular Vote Initiative: Direct Election of the President by Interstate Compact – R43823

The National Popular Vote (NPV) initiative proposes an agreement among th ... http://p.ost.im/j4DWby

Legislation to Facilitate Cybersecurity Information Sharing: Economic Analysis – R43821

Data breaches, such as those at Target, Home Depot, Neiman Marcus, and JP ... http://p.ost.im/j94st4

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Federal Inspectors General: History, Characteristics, and Recent Congressional Actions – R43814

Federal inspectors general (IGs) are authorized to combat waste, fraud, a ... http://p.ost.im/jmW3XP

Fact Sheet: Some Highlights of H.R. 83, Division C, FY2015 Defense Appropriations Act – R43819

Following are selected highlights of H.R. 83, Division C, the version of ... http://p.ost.im/jgAYe2

2014 Farm Bill Provisions and WTO Compliance – R43817

The enacted 2014 farm bill (Agricultural Act of 2014; P.L. 113-79) could ... http://p.ost.im/jbP9fd

Colombia: Background and U.S. Relations – R43813

Colombia is the third-most-populous country in Latin America, with roughl ... http://p.ost.im/jbuBLa

Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations – R43816

Argentina, a South American country with a population of around 41 millio ... http://p.ost.im/jCuXv4

Overview of Federal Real Property Disposal Requirements and Procedures – R43818

The federal government holds thousands of properties that agencies no lon ... http://p.ost.im/jbALC5

The Receipt of Gifts by Federal Employees in the Executive Branch – R43660

This report provides information on the federal statutes, regulations, an ... http://p.ost.im/j4yW3e

FY2015 Budget Requests to Counter Ebola and the Islamic State (IS) – R43807

The lame-duck session of the 113th Congress may consider appropriations m ... http://p.ost.im/juFb9F

Cash Versus Accrual Basis of Accounting: An Introduction – R43811

This report introduces two general methods of accountingthe cash basis me ... http://p.ost.im/jbxuTV

Hospital-Based Emergency Departments: Background and Policy Considerations – R43812

Hospital-based Emergency Departments (EDs) are required to stabilize pati ... http://p.ost.im/js88nJ

Analysis of H.R. 5781, California Emergency Drought Relief Act of 2014 – R43820

California is experiencing serious water shortages due to widespread drou ... http://p.ost.im/jGew9r

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2015 Budget and Appropriations – R43569

The annual State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs appropriations ... http://p.ost.im/jCEuyf

The “Islamic State” Crisis and U.S. Policy – R43612

The Islamic State is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrori ... http://p.ost.im/j5bP3K

Terrorism Risk Insurance Legislation: Issue Summary and Side-by-Side Analysis – R43619

Prior to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, insurance covering te ... http://p.ost.im/j57ejE

FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues – R43647

Military personnel issues typically generate significant interest from ma ... http://p.ost.im/j443se

Cybersecurity: Data, Statistics, and Glossaries – R43310

This report describes data and statistics from government, industry, and ... http://p.ost.im/jqcjuM

Federal Lands and Natural Resources: Overview and Selected Issues for the 113th Congress – R43429

The Property Clause in the U.S. Constitution (Article IV, 3, Clause 2) g ... http://p.ost.im/juuxKx

Recently Expired Housing Related Tax Provisions (“Tax Extenders”): In Brief – R43449

On December 3, 2014, the House passed the Tax Increase Prevention Act of ... http://p.ost.im/jQPEGX

Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions – R43311

The United States has led the international community in imposing economi ... http://p.ost.im/jbrLW4

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions – R43215

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as ame ... http://p.ost.im/juSNCU

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents – R43317

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and indi ... http://p.ost.im/jpV4Wy

SBA New Markets Venture Capital Program – R42565

Authorized by P.L. 106-554, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2001 (Ap ... http://p.ost.im/jQdjrv

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity fr ... http://p.ost.im/jumqf7

Addressing the Long-Run Budget Deficit: A Comparison of Approaches – R41970

A small share of federal spending is for direct provision of domestic gov ... http://p.ost.im/jQgq88

Haiti Under President Martelly: Current Conditions and Congressional Concerns – R42559

Haiti shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic. Since ... http://p.ost.im/jgkBKq

Cost-Benefit and Other Analysis Requirements in the Rulemaking Process – R41974

Regulatory analytical requirements (e.g., cost-benefit and cost-effective ... http://p.ost.im/jCXLD8

U.S.-Taiwan Relationship: Overview of Policy Issues – R41952

This CRS Report, updated through the 113th Congress, provides an overview ... http://p.ost.im/jmx9u3

SBA Veterans Assistance Programs: An Analysis of Contemporary Issues – R42695

Several federal agencies, including the Small Business Administration (SB ... http://p.ost.im/jV6gNQ

Nuclear Energy Cooperation with Foreign Countries: Issues for Congress – R41910

U.S. civil nuclear cooperation agreements (123 agreements), which are bil ... http://p.ost.im/jmHQsj

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation – R41259

North Korea has presented one of the most vexing and persistent problems ... http://p.ost.im/jgVetV

Friday, December 26, 2014

The Peace Corps: Current Issues – RS21168

Founded in 1961, the Peace Corps has sought to meet its legislative manda ... http://p.ost.im/jp3WYW

Closing a Congressional Office: Overview of House and Senate Practices – RL34553

Turnover of membership in the House and Senate necessitates closing congr ... http://p.ost.im/jg4qHK

U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism – RS22030

The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States and the su ... http://p.ost.im/jpLupt

U.S. Assistance Programs in China – RS22663

This report examines U.S. foreign assistance activities in the Peoples Re ... http://p.ost.im/jxT4Ck

Reform of U.S. International Taxation: Alternatives – RL34115

A striking feature of the modern U.S. economy is its growing opennessits ... http://p.ost.im/jVXTPm

Army Active Component (AC)/Reserve Component (RC) Force Mix: Considerations and Options for Congress – R43808

The Army is composed of both an Active Component (AC) and a Reserve Compo ... http://p.ost.im/jXmU4y

Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy – RL30588

Afghan security forces have lead security responsibility throughout the c ... http://p.ost.im/jq4ecY

Major Disaster Declarations for Snow Assistance and Severe Winter Storms: An Overview – R43802

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides two types of assi ... http://p.ost.im/j9afWv

U.S. Grain Standards Act: Potential Reauthorization in the 114th Congress – R43803

Under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) of 1916, the federal ... http://p.ost.im/j5nhCu

China-U.S. Trade Issues – RL33536

U.S.-China economic ties have expanded substantially over the past three ... http://p.ost.im/jq4PBA

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): An Overview – R43805

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is a refundable tax credit available ... http://p.ost.im/jaqyL8

The Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy: In Brief – R43396

On the evening of October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy, the second-largest A ... http://p.ost.im/j5waJm

Medicaid Home and Community-Based Settings Final Rule: In Brief – R43804

On January 16, 2014, the Centers for Medicare Medicaid Services (CMS) is ... http://p.ost.im/jpxTSx

Iran: Interim Nuclear Agreement and Talks on a Comprehensive Accord – R43333

On November 24, 2013, Iran and the six powers that have negotiated with I ... http://p.ost.im/jp3dnk

Preventing the Introduction and Spread of Ebola in the United States: Frequently Asked Questions – R43809

Throughout 2014, an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has outpaced th ... http://p.ost.im/jgRh3F

The Committee Markup Process in the House of Representatives – RL30244

At the beginning of a markup, committee members often make opening statem ... http://p.ost.im/j4XQq6

“Living Wills”: The Legal Regime for Constructing Resolution Plans for Certain Financial Institutions – R43801

One of the chief objectives of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Cons ... http://p.ost.im/jHfQmr

Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 3979, the Carl Levin and Howard “Buck” McKeon National Defense Authorization Act for FY2015 – R43806

Following are selected highlights of S. 1847, the version of the National ... http://p.ost.im/jVAtH8

Taxation of Internet Sales and Access: Legal Issues – R43800

In recent years, there has been significant congressional interest in the ... http://p.ost.im/j4kLVq

Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations – RL33546

This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues ... http://p.ost.im/j9DQcq

Proposed Train and Equip Authorities for Syria: In Brief – R43727

The FY2015 continuing appropriations resolution (H.J.Res. 124, P.L. 113-1 ... http://p.ost.im/jpXJ8V

Conflict Minerals and Resource Extraction: Dodd-Frank, SEC Regulations, and Legal Challenges – R43639

Two sections of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Protection Act (Dod ... http://p.ost.im/j5QbNf

U.S. Rail Transportation of Crude Oil: Background and Issues for Congress – R43390

North America is experiencing a boom in crude oil supply, primarily due t ... http://p.ost.im/jqp3YV

Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2014 – RL30011

The Medal of Honor (MOH) is the nations highest award for military valor. ... http://p.ost.im/jaFKCa

SBA Surety Bond Guarantee Program – R42037

The Small Business Administrations (SBAs) Surety Bond Guarantee Program i ... http://p.ost.im/jbQs2B

U.S. International Corporate Taxation: Basic Concepts and Policy Issues – R41852

Recent deficit reduction and tax reform plans have included broad proposa ... http://p.ost.im/jqqLdd

Responsibility Determinations Under the Federal Acquisition Regulation: Legal Standards and Procedures – R40633

This report discusses the standards and procedures that federal agencies ... http://p.ost.im/jg9sHj

Competition in Federal Contracting: Legal Overview – R40516

Competition in federal procurement contracting has long been of interest ... http://p.ost.im/jx32ua

GAO Bid Protests: An Overview of Time Frames and Procedures – R40228

For purposes of federal law, a bid protest involves a written objection t ... http://p.ost.im/jqATju

Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Net Neutrality: Can the FCC Reclassify Broadband Internet Access Services? – NB2014121089

On November 10, 2014, President Obama released a statement urging the Fed ... http://p.ost.im/jFCe9K

The ITC, Transmissions of Digital Data, Patent Infringement, and Teeth-Straightening – NB2014121090

Currently under appeal before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal C ... http://p.ost.im/jad5hm

Court Decision Raises Questions about the Rules Governing Acquisitions of Commercial Items – NB2014121085

A recent decision by the U.S. Court of Federal Claims has prompted renewe ... http://p.ost.im/jAP4v8

En Banc Ninth Circuit to Hear Visual Artists’ Appeal in Case That Struck Down California’s Resale Royalties Act – NB2014121086

On October 30, 2014, a majority of judges on the U.S. Court of Appeals fo ... http://p.ost.im/jmWP9Y

Federal District Court Dismisses Takings Clause Class Action Involving Treasury’s Investments in Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac – NB2014121087

In the first of what likely will be multiple judicial rulings on the cons ... http://p.ost.im/jB5ySn

How OFAC Calculates Penalties for Violations of Economic Sanctions – NB2014121088

Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) is charged with enfo ... http://p.ost.im/jHuaCV

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

Trade Remedies: Antidumping and Countervailing Duties – IF10018

What are they? Antidumping (AD) and Countervailing Duties (CVD) address u ... http://p.ost.im/jaKTPg

EPA Delays Decision on 2014 Renewable Fuel Standard to 2015 – IN10189

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in November 2014 that ... http://p.ost.im/j5DBws

The “Militarization” of Law Enforcement and the Department of Defense’s “1033 Program” – IN10138

August 2014 clashes between police and protesters in Ferguson, MO, sparke ... http://p.ost.im/jaJdGd

Tax Extenders Legislation in the 113th Congress: A Status Update – IN10177

Fifty-five tax provisions expired at the end of calendar year 2013 (exclu ... http://p.ost.im/jmV9mU

H.R. 5781: Legislation to Maximize Water Supplies to Address Drought in California – IF10019

California is experiencing serious water shortages due to widespread drou ... http://p.ost.im/jJawXp

FDA Finalizes New Rules for Calorie Labeling in Restaurants – IN10193

In 2010, President Obama signed the Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law, w ... http://p.ost.im/2T37Fc

What Is the Current State of the Economic Recovery? – IN10188

The U.S. economys recovery from the 2007-2009 recession has been steady b ... http://p.ost.im/jaPqAm

Attorney General Nominations Since the Reagan Administration – IN10192

On November 9, 2014, President Obama announced his intention to nominate ... http://p.ost.im/jaAxb5

Space Exploration – IF10016

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the primary f ... http://p.ost.im/jaJyGv

Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im Bank) Reauthorization – IF10017

What is Ex-Im Bank? As the official U.S. export credit agency (ECA), Ex-I ... http://p.ost.im/jm3hKN

What Is 5G? Implications for Spectrum and Technology Policy – IN10191

In the progression of improvements to mobile communications, 5G refers to ... http://p.ost.im/jDYruc

Congressional Oversight and Investigations – IF10015

Since its inception, Congress has engaged in oversight of the executive b ... http://p.ost.im/jmVDXa

Monday, December 8, 2014

The Budget Control Act and Trends in Discretionary Spending – RL34424

Discretionary spending is provided and controlled through appropriations ... http://p.ost.im/jArQ8q

The Help America Vote Act and Election Administration: Overview and Issues – RS20898

The deadlocked November 2000 presidential election focused national atten ... http://p.ost.im/jPMyVC

EPA and the Army Corps’ Proposed Rule to Define “Waters of the United States” – R43455

On March 25, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/jREukC

Securing U.S. Diplomatic Facilities and Personnel Abroad: Legislative and Executive Branch Initiatives – R43195

The September 11, 2012, attack on U.S. facilities in Benghazi, Libya, pro ... http://p.ost.im/jrDMP8

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Recent Trends and Factors – R43795

On June 25, 2013, President Obama affirmed his commitment to reduce U.S. ... http://p.ost.im/jrCjGM

Speaking on the House Floor: Gaining Time and Parliamentary Phraseology – RS22991

House rules and precedents structure Members’ opportunities to speak on ... http://p.ost.im/jA6q93

Iran: Interim Nuclear Agreement and Talks on a Comprehensive Accord – R43333

On November 24, 2013, Iran and the six powers that have negotiated with I ... http://p.ost.im/2EdLhD

China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues – RL31555

Congress has long been concerned about whether policy advances the U.S. i ... http://p.ost.im/j8NWkB

Export-Import Bank Reauthorization: Frequently Asked Questions – R43671

The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank or the Bank), a w ... http://p.ost.im/jB6W8A

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments – RS22570

Since 2000, the U.S. military has been building up forward-deployed force ... http://p.ost.im/jPDYB8

U.S. Secret Service Protection Mission Funding and Staffing: Fact Sheet – R43797

The U.S. Secret Service (USSS) has two broad missions, criminal investiga ... http://p.ost.im/jANn3K

State Children’s Health Insurance Program: An Overview – R43627

The State Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is a means-tested ... http://p.ost.im/jUr8PU

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA): Resources for Frequently Asked Questions – R43215

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as ame ... http://p.ost.im/jkuuyy

Department of Homeland Security: FY2015 Appropriations – R43796

This report analyzes the FY2015 appropriations for the Department of Home ... http://p.ost.im/jydwxB

The Obama Administration’s November 2014 Immigration Initiatives: Questions and Answers – R43798

On November 20, 2014, President Obama delivered a televised address where ... http://p.ost.im/jAMEck

Senate Standing Committees’ Rules on Legislative Activities and Executive Business: Analysis for the 113th Congress – R43799

Senate Rule XXVI directs Senate committees to adopt rules of procedure an ... http://p.ost.im/j5grj8

Casework in a Congressional Office: Background, Rules, Laws, and Resources – RL33209

In a congressional office, the term casework refers to the response or se ... http://p.ost.im/jBCKUm

Counting Regulations: An Overview of Rulemaking, Types of Federal Regulations, and Pages in the Federal Register – R43056

Federal rulemaking is an important mechanism through which the federal go ... http://p.ost.im/jFbRNS

An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions – R43148

The United States has seen resurgence in petroleum production, mainly dri ... http://p.ost.im/jr2FW8

Energy-Water Nexus: The Energy Sector’s Water Use – R43199

Water and energy are critical resources that are reciprocally linked; thi ... http://p.ost.im/jBAHEt

The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction – 95-563

The daily order of business on the floor of the House of Representatives ... http://p.ost.im/j8dEwR

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

No True Bill: A Grand Jury’s Refusal to Indict – NB2014111082

Grand jury indictment is a constitutional right in federal felony cases. ... http://p.ost.im/jyvFDG

The Obama Administration’s Announced Immigration Initiative: A Primer – NB2014111084

On November 20, President Obama announced the commencement of a multi-pro ... http://p.ost.im/jS87YJ

Supreme Court Denies Cert in Not So “Elementary” Copyright Case – NB2014111083

Are the popular fictional characters Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson ... http://p.ost.im/jMEmTN

Congress Faces Calls to Address Expiring ACA Appropriations – IN10185

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), enacted in March 2010, appropriated billio ... http://p.ost.im/jFjErf

Employment Growth and Progress Toward Full Employment – IN10187

Job growth was slow to pick up following the recession that ended in June ... http://p.ost.im/jhWH3T

Cybersecurity: FISMA Reform – IN10186

Two bills to revise the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISM ... http://p.ost.im/jU8SAr

A Federal Pause in Potentially Risky Influenza Research – IN10184

Over several decades, Congress has enacted legislation to fund research i ... http://p.ost.im/jhnw3R

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

The World Trade Organization at 20 – IF10002

The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established on January 1, 1995, fo ... http://p.ost.im/jBvpA6

The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program: 2014 Open Season – IF10004

The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is the largest emplo ... http://p.ost.im/jdF8Gc

Cybersecurity Issues and Challenges – IF10001

Information and communications technology (ICT) is ubiquitous and increas ... http://p.ost.im/jSxjUY

Ebola: 2014 Outbreak in West Africa – IF00044

In March 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) began in Guinea. ... http://p.ost.im/2w3Eev

Federal Regulations and the Rulemaking Process – IF10003

What Is Federal Rulemaking? Congress often grants rulemaking authority to ... http://p.ost.im/jBYmvm

U.S.-China Trade Issues – IF00046

The U.S.-China trade and economic relationship has expanded significantly ... http://p.ost.im/jyUGm4

Monday, December 1, 2014

Farm and Food Support Under USDA’s Section 32 Program – RL34081

“Section 32” is a permanent appropriation that since 1935 has set asi ... http://p.ost.im/jk7HY9

Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy – RS21513

Kuwait has been pivotal to U.S. efforts to secure the Persian Gulf region ... http://p.ost.im/jD7qAQ

Yemen: Background and U.S. Relations – RL34170

This report provides an overview and analysis of U.S.-Yemeni relations am ... http://p.ost.im/jrwshm

A Guide to U.S. Military Casualty Statistics: Operation Inherent Resolve, Operation New Dawn, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation Enduring Freedom – RS22452

This report presents statistics regarding U.S. military casualties in the ... http://p.ost.im/jdbeFj

U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress – RS21048

Special Operations Forces (SOF) play a significant role in U.S. military ... http://p.ost.im/jrYh57

Cybersecurity: Data, Statistics, and Glossaries – R43310

This report describes data and statistics from government, industry, and ... http://p.ost.im/jBBBHQ

Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement – R43592

At the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Ninth Ministerial Conferenc ... http://p.ost.im/2EFyG3

U.S. Family Wealth from 1989 to 2013: Evidence and Analysis – RL33433

U.S. family wealth has been an underlying consideration in congressional ... http://p.ost.im/jhk3e2

Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions – R43311

The United States has led the international community in imposing economi ... http://p.ost.im/jfgeuf

Intelligence Authorization Legislation for FY2014 and FY2015: Provisions, Status, Intelligence Community Framework – R43793

An Intelligence Authorization Act (IAA) for Fiscal Years (FY) 2014 and 20 ... http://p.ost.im/jBA5Et

Natural Gas for Cars and Trucks: Options and Challenges – R43791

The increase in domestic supplies of natural gas has raised new interest ... http://p.ost.im/jfkRYt

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses – RL32048

Since the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979, a priority of U.S. policy h ... http://p.ost.im/jh3btk

Overview of the Federal Tax System – RL32808

The major sources of federal tax revenue are individual income taxes, Soc ... http://p.ost.im/jUvg4V

Terrorism Risk Insurance Legislation: Issue Summary and Side-by-Side Analysis – R43619

Prior to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, insurance covering te ... http://p.ost.im/jL8P69

Cybersecurity: Legislation, Hearings, and Executive Branch Documents – R43317

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities challenge governments, businesses, and indi ... http://p.ost.im/jrRvYx

U.S. Trade Concepts, Performance, and Policy: Frequently Asked Questions – RL33944

Congress plays a major role in U.S. trade policy through its legislative ... http://p.ost.im/jS7vAE

Food Recalls and Other FDA Administrative Enforcement Actions – R43794

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensures the safety of all foo ... http://p.ost.im/jDxeda

Adult Education and Family Literacy Act: Major Statutory Provisions – R43789

The Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA) is the primary federa ... http://p.ost.im/jrMTA8

State Minimum Wages: An Overview – R43792

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), enacted in 1938, is the federal legi ... http://p.ost.im/jM5yLB

U.S. Family-Based Immigration Policy – R43145

Family reunification is a key principle underlying U.S. immigration polic ... http://p.ost.im/2KmpCS

Veterans Affairs: Presumptive Service Connection and Disability Compensation – R41405

The United States has provided benefits in varying degrees to those who h ... http://p.ost.im/jB4cMs

SBA Small Business Investment Company Program – R41456

The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Small Business Investment ... http://p.ost.im/jBSMtU

Child Welfare: Health Care Needs of Children in Foster Care and Related Federal Issues – R42378

Approximately 641,000 children spend some time in foster care each year. ... http://p.ost.im/jhBWUx

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act: History, Impact, and Issues – R40957

The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (UMRA) culminated years of effor ... http://p.ost.im/jrtBQU

Federal Capital Offenses: An Abridged Overview of Substantive and Procedural Law – R42096

Murder is a federal capital offense if committed in any of more than 50 j ... http://p.ost.im/jyxM8y

Cybersecurity: Authoritative Reports and Resources, by Topic – R42507

This report provides references to analytical reports on cybersecurity fr ... http://p.ost.im/jrv85D

Welfare, Work, and Poverty Status of Female- Headed Families with Children: 1987-2013 – R41917

Eighteen years have passed since repeal of what was the nation’s major ... http://p.ost.im/jUmWXD

Federal Capital Offenses: An Overview of Substantive and Procedural Law – R42095

Murder is a federal capital offense if committed in any of more than 50 j ... http://p.ost.im/j86BHW

International Climate Change Financing: The Green Climate Fund (GCF) – R41889

Over the past several decades, the United States has delivered financial ... http://p.ost.im/2wHaRA

Past Government Shutdowns: Key Resources – R41759

When federal government agencies and programs lack budget authority after ... http://p.ost.im/jMKebu

Small Business Administration HUBZone Program – R41268

The Small Business Administration (SBA) administers several programs to s ... http://p.ost.im/jhgwj9

Child Welfare: State Plan Requirements under the Title IV-E Foster Care, Adoption Assistance, and Kinship Guardianship Assistance Program – R42794

Under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act, states, territories, and tri ... http://p.ost.im/jyJ7a8

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Negotiations and Issues for Congress – R42694

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agr ... http://p.ost.im/jB2ANx

Internships, Fellowships, and Other Work Experience Opportunities in the Federal Government – 98-654

This report describes Internet resources on major internship, fellowship, ... http://p.ost.im/jUDhwH

Klamath Basin Settlement Agreements – R42158

The Klamath River Basin on the California-Oregon border is a focal point ... http://p.ost.im/jrajBp

Small Business Administration Microloan Program – R41057

The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Microloan program provide ... http://p.ost.im/jhUDtr

Everglades Restoration: Federal Funding and Implementation Progress – R42007

The Everglades is a unique network of subtropical wetlands in South Flori ... http://p.ost.im/jk5HCT

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Scientific Basis of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Actions: H.R. 1422 and H.R. 4012 – IN10182

The scientific basis of regulation is a long-standing issue. In the 113th ... http://p.ost.im/jkq3Mc

Repatriation of Foreign Treasures of Antiquity: Forfeiture Limitations – NB2014111079

Federal authorities have enjoyed some success using customs forfeiture pr ... http://p.ost.im/jhrReG

If a Government Warning Causes Serious Economic Loss, is There a Taking of Property Rights? – NB2014111078

Government actions may reduce property value in countless ways. Even when ... http://p.ost.im/jrnKUF

Proposed Suspension Agreements Would End Dispute with Mexico over Sugar Trade – IN10178

The U.S. Department of Commerce, the Mexican government, and representati ... http://p.ost.im/jAC9Sg

The Battle over Cable Boxes – IN10180

Disagreement over requirements for the set-top boxes in viewers homes is ... http://p.ost.im/j6sWj8

Ebola: 2014 Outbreak in West Africa – IF00044

In March 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) began in Guinea. ... http://p.ost.im/jrBkU5

Would Congressional Inaction on Initiative 71 be Consistent with International Treaty Commitments? – NB2014111081

On Election Day, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia (the Distri ... http://p.ost.im/jYr8Yt

Untimely U.S. Filing Does Not Doom Forfeiture – NB2014111080

The government’s confiscation efforts sometimes survive its failure to ... http://p.ost.im/jrGhwb

Jerusalem: Recent Israeli-Palestinian Tensions and Violence – IN10183

The status of Jerusalem and its holy sites has been a long-standing issue ... http://p.ost.im/jhCq97

Proposals to Change the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA’s) Definition of “Full Time” – IF00064

For the purposes of the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA; P.L. 111-148, as am ... http://p.ost.im/jhed87

U.S. Citizens Kidnapped by the Islamic State – IN10167

On November 16, 2014, the terrorist group known as the Islamic State (IS, ... http://p.ost.im/2E3e3x

Foreign Affairs Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO): Background and Current Issues – IF00063

Some Members of Congress are examining foreign affairs funding designated ... http://p.ost.im/2wUpsv

Proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) – IF00001

What is the current status? The negotiations remain ongoing. TPP Minister ... http://p.ost.im/jAYL5H

The G-20 Summit: Brisbane, November 15-16, 2014 – IN10174

The Group of Twenty (G-20) is a multilateral forum for advancing internat ... http://p.ost.im/jhYyrC

Monday, November 24, 2014

Federal Proposals to Tax Marijuana: An Economic Analysis – R43785

The combination of state policy and general public opinion favoring the l ... http://p.ost.im/jBeDcJ

School Meals Programs and Other USDA Child Nutrition Programs: A Primer – R43783

“Child nutrition programs” is an overarching term used to describe th ... http://p.ost.im/jA63xC

Keystone XL Pipeline: Overview and Recent Developments – R43787

TransCanada’s proposed Keystone XL Pipeline would transport oil sands c ... http://p.ost.im/jrXmGu

FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer – R43784

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (refe ... http://p.ost.im/jdGDhp

Legislative Branch: FY2015 Appropriations – R43557

The legislative branch appropriations bill provides funding for the Senat ... http://p.ost.im/jreNGh

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress – RL33745

The Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out b ... http://p.ost.im/jFHJsH

Executive Discretion as to Immigration: Legal Overview – R43782

President Obama announced in June 2014 that he would seek “to fix as mu ... http://p.ost.im/jByyuC

Federal Deductibility of State and Local Taxes – RL32781

Under current law, taxpayers who itemize can deduct state and local real ... http://p.ost.im/jBn5bR

Security Assistance Reform: “Section 1206″ Background and Issues for Congress – RS22855

Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal ... http://p.ost.im/jdU2sm

Juvenile Justice Funding Trends – RS22655

Although juvenile justice has always been administered by the states, Con ... http://p.ost.im/jMcqQe

The Office of the Parliamentarian in the House and Senate – RS20544

The House and the Senate each has an Office of the Parliamentarian to pro ... http://p.ost.im/jMsdjD

Veterans and Homelessness – RL34024

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan brought renewed attention to the needs o ... http://p.ost.im/jhyjp6

Agriculture in the WTO Bali Ministerial Agreement – R43592

At the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Ninth Ministerial Conferenc ... http://p.ost.im/jkFNfB

The “Islamic State” Crisis and U.S. Policy – R43612

The Islamic State is a transnational Sunni Islamist insurgent and terrori ... http://p.ost.im/jSrwGE

Points of Order, Rulings, and Appeals in the House of Representatives – 98-307

The Speaker usually does not take the initiative to prevent the House fro ... http://p.ost.im/jAeYgS

State and Local Government Series (SLGS) Treasury Debt: A Description – R41811

As part of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014 (P.L. 113-46), the Uni ... http://p.ost.im/jkjUMQ

EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track? – R41561

Since Barack Obama was sworn in as President in 2009, the Environmental P ... http://p.ost.im/jFFB9f

Resources for Key Economic Indicators – R43295

An understanding of economic indicators and their significance is seen as ... http://p.ost.im/jeckC3

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction – R42388

Congress annually considers several appropriations measures, which provid ... http://p.ost.im/jAJuKk

The Small Business Lending Fund – R42045

Congressional interest in small business access to capital has increased ... http://p.ost.im/jJvPcr

Guide to Individuals Seated on the House Dais – 98-396

The House of Representatives meets in the House chamber of the Capitol. I ... http://p.ost.im/jrs4c6

Medicare Skilled Nursing Facility Primer: Benefit Basics and Issues – R42401

A Medicare skilled nursing facility (SNF) is an institution, or distinct ... http://p.ost.im/jkBBHP

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Lessons Learned and Issues for Policymakers – R41836

The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is the nation’s first man ... http://p.ost.im/jS5hUB

Senate Consideration of Treaties – 98-384

The consideration of treaties and nominations constitutes the executive b ... http://p.ost.im/jkfybt